Personality and individual differences 3

[6 abstracts]

1. Comparing factors of Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) with the Szondi-test in a sample of criminal offenders  [presentation, ppt, 661 kB]
Biro V., Gyöngyösiné Kiss E.
First author's affiliation: University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary

Characteristics of criminal personality have been studied by several theorists in the history of psychology from Gall’s phrenology till the latest psychopathological approaches. Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, 1994) is designed to assess differences between people in seven basic dimensions of temperament and character. The four temperament dimensions are Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence and the three character dimensions are Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. The inventory has been developed to account for individual differences in normal and abnormal (deviant) behavior patterns as well. In our empirical research we examine 100 criminal offenders. The subjects filled out the TCI, and the Szondi Test was also taken with them (eight times). We compared the scores of the TCI factors with the factors of the Szondi Test. Our hypotheses are based on Dr. Phil. Enikő Gyöngyösiné Kiss’ examination (on a non-criminal, healthy sample), which obtained, that in the cases of Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness factors in the TCI there is a positive correlations with the suitable Szondi Test signs.

2. Tolerance, depression and sense of humor  
Kolesarić V., Krizmanić M.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia

Depressed people are for the most part concentrated on themselves and their troubles. People with a well developed sense of humor do not put themselves in the center of the universe. Tolerant people do take into account other people and their rights and needs, so the aim of the research was to established possible relations between these variables. Students at the University of Zagreb have given answers to scales of tolerance towards family members and peers, a depression questionnaire and two tests for sense of humor. The obtained results show some interesting relations between the examined variables.

3. Well-being and internalized homophobia in a sample of lesbians and gays in the Region Friuli Venzia Giulia  
Flebus G. B., Bottino M.
First author's affiliation: Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy

The Multifactor Internalized Homophobia Inventory (MIHI, Flebus & Montano, 2003) was used to measure internalized homophobia in a large sample of gays and lesbians living in the Friuli Venezia Giulia. The MIHI is made up of six scales which tap different aspects of internalized homophobia: (1) fear of coming out; (2) regret for sexual orientation; (3) counter-prejudicial attitude; (4) homosexual marriage; (5) homosexual parenthood; (6) stereotype of gays/lesbians. The anonymous questionnaire, distributed in either paper and electronic format, comprised also a short scale derived by Ryff's model of well-being, the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and a new scale, aimed to measure the impact of sexual orientation on life events. Other biographical data (such as age, gender, sexual orientation, family status, education) were used to better analyse and understand the answers. The connections of well-being, self esteem and internalized homophobia are presented in the results.

4. Factor analysis of social networking services behaviour and some characteristics of SNS users  [presentation, ppt, 1308 kB]
Popov B., Bodroža B.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Philosophy, Novi Sad, Serbia

Internet social networking services (SNS) represent virtual space for communication and development of social relations (like Facebook, MySpace, etc.). To our knowledge few researches focused on such services so far, whereas internet chat services received more scientific attention. The research explores latent structure of behaviour on web-based SNS. In order to operationalize this form of behaviour, the preliminary version of SNB (Social Networking Behaviour, Popov & Bodroza, 2008) scale has been established. The scale consists of 73 items focused on the quality of computer mediated communication, identity and excessive use of these services. The sample includes 105 subjects. The factor analysis with Promax rotation revealed five interpretable factors, which account for 41.4% of variance. The first factor is interpreted as “SNS addiction” and it describes the excessive use of these services and their use as self confidence booster. The second factor is called “SNS socializing” and it describes the use of SNS to enhance social life, transferring the virtual friendships into real life. The third factor is named “SNS profile as social self” and it refers to the expression of own identity through SNS. The next factor refers to the “negative attitude towards SNS communication” and SNS in general. The fifth factor is called the “flirty communication” and it includes the instrumental use of communication in order to gain sexual stimulation. All these factors have weak to moderate correlation, with the exception of the “negative attitude towards SNS communication” where no correlation with other factors has been found. The second part of the research highlights the differences in behaviour of users of various SNS, predominantly MySpace and Facebook, these two being most commonly used. Furthermore, the differences among users have been analysed from the point of the time consumed by SNS, length of user status and various preferences in SNS communication.

5. The effects of exposure to thin media images in young females  
Mian E., Gerbino W.
First author's affiliation: University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy

Body dissatisfaction in young females has been shown to be a causal risk factor for dieting, negative body image, and increases in eating disorder symptoms. Research has shown that women’s ideal body images are influenced by exposure to diet messages and thin media images. However, studies that explored this phenomenon compared groups of healthy females exposed vs. non-exposed to thin media images, exclusively by means of questionnaires or silhouettes ratings. Such methods have low test-retest reliability. Our experiment studied the effects of exposure to physique salient (PS) vs. physique non-salient (PNS) media images and the moderating influence of perceived body discrepancies (PBD). We used a digital assessment method called Body Image Revealer (BIR), consisting in a digital simulation technique capable of manipulating a picture of the participant, previously taken by a digital camera, to simulate a thin/fat body. Participants, 53 female students, filled validated questionnaires in order to exclude those with an eating disorder. Body Mass Index (BMI) was measured to exclude women outside normal weight range. Five participants were excluded because of high scores in the aforementioned questionnaires or low/high BMI values. To define a baseline, participants’ perceived bodies (PB) and ideal bodies (IB) were assessed using the BIR. The retest was managed after 5 minutes, consisting of a second BIR session following the presentation of PS vs. PNS media images taken from magazines that girls read, according to a poll subministered all over the nation before the experiment. Higher PB scores were associated with the exposure to PS images. The analysis of IB scores indicated that participants increased their desire for thinner bodies after exposure to PS images. Both effects were positively correlated with age and BMI. Results suggest that PS images portraying thin models elicit negative PBD and a desire for thinness greater than images that are considered physique non-salient. This can be detrimental for women’s body images and could be prodromic for an eating disorder.

6. Comparison of high school, undergraduate and graduate students in procrastination  [presentation, ppt, 268 kB]
Uzun Ozer B.
Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

Procrastination is an undesirable and maladaptive behavior common especially in academic domain. Research studies have shown that it is one of the common barriers to academic success since it decreases the quality and quantity of work. There has been intense body of literature on procrastination and its reasons in different age groups. However, direct comparison of different academic grade levels on procrastination prevalence and its reasons has drawn less attention in the literature. Hence, the purpose of the present research was to investigate the levels, prevalence and the reasons of academic procrastination on high school, undergraduate and graduate students. In this respect, Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS) was administered to a total of 448 students: 149 (83 female; 66 male) were high-school, 150 (80 female; 70 male) undergraduate and 148 (84 female; 64 male) graduate students. The average age was 15.5 years old for high-school, 20.4 years old for undergraduate, and 25.5 years old for graduate students. Results showed a significant difference in procrastination among these three groups. Specifically, undergraduate students (M = 20.1; SD = 3.8) claimed to procrastinate more than graduate (M = 18.5; SD = 4.1) and high school students (M = 17.2; SD = 4.5). 37% of high school students and 56% of undergraduate students claimed to be nearly always or always procrastinator on studying for exams, while graduate students (39%) procrastinate more on writing term papers. High school students engage in procrastination due to the reason of perfectionism, difficulty in making decision, laziness and risk taking; while undergraduates procrastinate due to lack of assertion and aversiveness of tasks. Graduate students procrastinate due to fear of failure, rebellion against control and laziness.