Personality and individual differences 2

[5 abstracts]

1. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment – Revised (IPPA-R)  
Babity M., Bíró V., Nagy L.
First author's affiliation: PTE-BTK, Pécs, Hungary

Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) developed by Armsden and Greenberg (1987) is a self – report measure of attachment for children and adolescents. In line with Bowlby’s attachment theory, the IPPA measures psychological security derived from relationships with significant others, e.g. mother, father, (trust, communication, alienation). The aim of the present study was to generalize the results of Armsden and Greenberg’s (1987) three – dimension model of adolescents’ attachment to their parents in a group of Hungarian adolescents. Two samples of adolescent students who ranged in age from 10 to 15 and 16 to 18 years were investigated. Among the participants there were children living in families and foster cared. In our survey good internal consistency were found for the IPPA with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging between 0.717 and 0.898 for the sub-scales across both the parent and peer subscales. Good test-retest reliability was found in both samples of adolescents over a three-week period. There were differences between children living in residential care or living in families on the three subscales. The rate of trust in their mother was lower among boys living in residential care compared to boys living in their own family. The rate of trust in their father was lower among girls living in residential care and the highest rate of trust was found among the younger adolescents. Communication with mother is significantly lower among children living in residential care (both girls and boys), and the highest rate of communication was found in older adolescents girls. We got significant differences in alienation – the rate was higher among girls living in residential care.

2. Attachment style, coping strategies and behavioral problems among adolescents in residential care  
Biro V., Babity M., Nagy L.
First author's affiliation: University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary

From the beginning of life, love is as important for the emotional developing like food for physical development. For a baby it is important to be sure that it can rely on her nurse in any case. Those children who miss his/her mother’s love are unable to develop normal emotional relationship with other people (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). According to surveys (Shechory & Sommerfeld, 2007) children who get into residential care after the age of 7 have a higher level of depression, anxiety, and they have more social problems compared to children who are taken into care system earlier. It is well known that the time they spend in residential care is related to the level and the types of their behavioural problems. Two samples of adolescent students who ranged in age from 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years were investigated. Among the participants there were children living in families and foster care. The attachment was measured with IPPA-R. In our survey, good internal consistency was found for the IPPA with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for all sub-scales. The behavioural problems were registered with the CBCL self-report questionnaire. Our results show that adolescents living in residential care exhibit higher levels of depression and anxiety. The coping strategies were measured with the CISS-48. When adolescents use coping strategies, those living in residential care (both boys and girls) prefer emotional strategies. Avoiding strategies are used mainly by boys living in residential care, and problem-focused coping is characteristic for children (both boys and girls) living in families.

3. Insecure attachment and emotion dysregulation  [presentation, ppt, 107 kB]
Láng A.
University of Pécs, Institute for Educational Studies, Pécs, Hungary

Rooted in early caregiver-infant relation, people with different attachment styles deal differently with emotional issues. In this study connection between attachment dimensions (i.e. attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety), alexithymia and anxiety was investigated. Correlation between avoidance and alexithymia, and between anxious attachment and anxious symptoms was expected and tested on a sample of university students (n=90) using self-report measures (ECR-S for attachment dimensions; TAS-20 for alexithymia; STAI and self-report of vegetative symptoms for anxiety). Correlational analysis partially confirmed hypotheses. Alexithymic features and anxiety correlated with attachment dimensions in expected way and in accordance with attachment theory.

4. The relationship of attachment style and emotional intelligence: The moderating role of gender  
Rebernjak B., Buško V., Marjanović I.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Zagreb, Croatia

The association of attachment style and emotional intelligence (EI) with a possible moderating effect of gender was investigated in a sample of 281 Croatian students. Previous studies indicated the existence of connection between parental warmth and emotional intelligence, and between attachment and emotional intelligence, although this relationship was not thoroughly explored. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis indicated weak to moderate relationship between attachment style and two ability measures of EI. Male participants who exhibit negative model of self (anxious and fearful attachment styles) scored lower on EI measures than those exhibiting positive model of self (secure and dismissive attachment styles). Female participants, on the other hand, scored more or less consistently on EI (depending on the measure used) no matter what their attachment style was.

5. The role of humor in human relationships: An evolutionary model  [presentation, ppt, 415 kB]
Tisljar R., Sefcsik T., Bereczkei T.
First author's affiliation: University of Szeged, Department of Psychology, Szeged, Hungary

Many theories explain the functions of humor in the people's everyday lives. In the light of evolutionary psychology, humor has adaptive features, but the questions on the exact selective pressure has remained unanswered. Human relationships, including mate choice, involve several aspects of humor. We regard humor as a signaling tool that, among others, enable people to detect the degree of similarity between the prospective partners or friends. One of the main questions of our study is to what degree couples and friends share the same humor style, and whether this kind of resemblance (or homogamy) leads to a higher level of satisfaction with their relationship.