Personality and individual differences 1

[5 abstracts]

1. From Big Five to Big One: Higher-order structural hierarchy of personality  [presentation, ppt, 305 kB]
Musek J.
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Hierarchical structural models comprising the general factor solution have been established in different fields of psychology (e.g. general factor of intelligence). In the personality domain however, the discussion has been between two-, three-, five- or more factor solutions, while the general factor solution has never been taken seriously until a very recent time. In this study, the evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) is presented and a new hierarchical structural model of personality is proposed. Additionally, the psychological nature of the GFP or the Big One is discussed as well as its possible evolutionary, genetic and neurophysiological basis.

2. Self-concept and competition: Toward a structural model of factors of motivation  [presentation, ppt, 183 kB]
Kobal Grum D.
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Among various studies on cross-cultural aspects of self-concept there is a huge lack on relation of self-concept with competition. In our study, we try to reject a stereotype, that competition is not a desired personal characteristic. Therefore, the principal hypothesis is, that if competition is investigated in a context of self-concept, also positive correlations with self-concept areas could appear. As a consequence, a new model of self-concept, based on different kinds of competition, could be postulated. It could also be assumed that this model might differ from culture to culture. Therefore, the participants from three countries participated in the study. Countries were chosen on the basis of political and cultural indicators in Eastern/Southern versus Western/Southern European changes: Slovenia, Serbia and Monte Negro and Spain. The investigation of the correlations between self-concept and competition within each national cultural group is underlined. The study comprised of 128 Slovene, 99 Serbian and Monte Negro and 140 Spanish participants. We found that culture has a significant impact on self-concept and competition.

3. Who will win the competition? The relationship between personality, strategy and success in a competitive situation  
Czibor A., Bereczkei T.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institute of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

Identifying the personality factors which can influence individual’s decisions in a competitive situation is a crucial dilemma on different fields of psychology. From the evolutional perspective, the goods gained in the competition can increase the individual’s prospect for surviving and mating, resulting in a higher genetic representation in the next generations. Our aim was to investigate, how personality traits, conflict solving methods, and Machiavellianism influence the benefits earned and strategies applied to a competitive game that was played for real money. In the experimental settings university students played the public goods game transformed to a competitive situation. Winners were expected to behave on a self-interest manner, so they do not significantly contribute to the collective property. In order to obtain information about the subjects’ personality and character profiles and their typical conflict solving strategies we used Temperament and Character Inventory by Cloninger, the Thomas-Killman Conflict Mode Inventory, and additionally the Mach IV. Test. The scores of competitive conflict-solving strategy showed significant negative correlation with the amount of individual contributions in the first round of the game, whereas the high Avoidance scores were positively associated with a higher contribution in the middle of the game. The amount of benefit individuals gained showed differences between the two sexes, and negatively correlated with the Reward Dependence. High-Mach persons were likely to gain higher benefit than low-Machs, although the difference did not reach the level of significance. In the light of the participants’ answers to the experimenter’s questions at the end of the game, participants could be classified into individually-oriented and group-oriented players. These attitudes had a remarkable effect on the participants’ decisions on the game strategy, and the amount of benefit they gained.

4. The effects of personality traits and suppression of positive emotion on physiological changes  [presentation, ppt, 445 kB]
Gračanin A., Kardum I., Hudek - Knežević J.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Arts and Sciences Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia

The effects of emotional suppression and personality traits on the changes in the physiological activation in the situation of positive affect compared to emotionally neutral situation were examined. Participants (N = 119) viewed film clips of neutral and emotional content. They were divided in two groups, the one that received instructions to suppress experienced emotions and the one with instructions to act normally. During the experiment, skin conductance level (SCL), peripheral pulse amplitude (PPA), and heart rate (HR) were measured. Data about personality traits were collected with NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1991), which measures Five factor personality dimensions as well as their facets, six within each dimension. No effects of suppressing on the differences in physiological activation between neutral clip and the one aimed to induce positive emotion were found. Main effects of the Five factor dimensions and their facets on physiological changes were found, as well as the interactions between them and group (suppression/normal behaviour). The effects of neuroticism and facets of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness on the changes in SCL were found. Also, the effects of neuroticism and extraversion facets on the changes in the PPA as well as the effects of the facets of agreeableness on the changes in HR were found. Most importantly, interactions between neuroticism, conscientiousness, facets of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness and group (suppression/normal behaviour) on the changes in SCL and PPA were found, which suggest that suppression of positive emotion has different effects on physiological activity, depending on the personality traits. The results obtained were discussed having in mind the role of personality traits in emotional experience and expression.

5. Preference for self-resembling faces in human mate choice and interpersonal relations  [presentation, ppt, 2014 kB]
Kocsor F., Juhász S., Rezneki R., Bereczkei T.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

Empirical studies proved that human mate choice tends to be homogamous for various traits. However, results of the experiments on facial resemblance are contradictory. Bereczkei (2004) showed a high degree of similarity between spouses, while deBruine (2004) found negative correlation between self-resemblance and attractiveness of opposite sex images. To obtain additional data about the preference for self-resemblance, we took photos of volunteers' faces, which were morphed into male and female composite faces. The volunteers had to choose between self-resembling and non-resembling faces, and images which were more attractive then the self-resembling faces. Women did not show any preference for similarity, they preferred the most attractive male and female faces. In contrast, men preferred the self-resembling images of women to non-resembling images. In a situation, when men had to choose between the three types of opposite sex images at the same time, they preferred the most attractive to self-resembling and the latter to non-resembling faces, as predicted. The self-resemblance of same-sex faces was not preferred by men nor by women. Presumably in a real mate-choice situation both similarity and attractiveness play an important role. The difference in the preference for the same and opposite sex self-resembling faces supports the theory that instead of mere perceptional biases, higher level, adaptive, evolved neuronal processes of decision-making contribute to the mechanism of choosing between faces.