Industrial / Organizational psychology and consumer behavior 1

[4 abstracts]

1. What motivates employee to perform organizational citizenship behavior?  [presentation, ppt, 1105 kB]
Rak I., Penezić Z.
First author's affiliation: Elementary School A. M. Petropoljskog, Drniš, Croatia

Organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB) are defined as job behaviours that are discretionary, not explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, yet they contribute to organizational effectiveness. Examples of OCB may include helping a co-worker who has been absent from work, volunteering for extra duty when needed, representing the company enthusiastically at public functions, and acting in ways that improve morale, and resolve unconstructive interpersonal conflict. The aim of this study was to give some new clues in determining incentives for this type of behaviour. We questioned the importance of organizational justice that pertains to employees' views of whether they are being treated fairly by the organization. There are several components of organizational justice: distributive, procedural and interactional. We also evaluated employee's life satisfaction, work satisfaction and pay satisfaction. Our final variable was work values defined as goals that one wants to achieve in his work; using importance and realization of intrinsic and extrinsic work values in employees. The sample in this study consisted of full time bank employees (195; 172 female, 23 male). Questionnaire was collected in 25 bank offices. In our analysis we have used results of 172 female employees. Our results show the significant correlation between dimensions of organizational citizenship behaviour and all examined variables (dimensions of organizational justice, life, work and pay satisfaction and importance and realization of intrinsic and extrinsic work values). Regression analysis showed that the procedural justice, importance and realization of intrinsic work values were significant predictors of different dimensions of OCB. Our data suggest the further need for new studies on citizenship behaviour in organizations including some new variables which could give us new light on this interesting area of research.

2. Dissemination of organizational values, mission and vision: An examination among contact personnel  
Musek Lešnik K., Arzenšek A.
First author's affiliation: Mednarodna fakulteta za družbene in poslovne študije, Celje, Slovenia

There is a common belief that clear organizational values, a clear sense of common mission, and a clear organizational vision are important elements of excellent corporate cultures. Moreover, even though reported research findings regarding these organizational issues differ, some strong evidence supports this belief. Organization can only communicate with the outside world those issues that are successfully communicated internally. Therefore the important question for many organizations is not whether they have written organizational values, mission, and vision, as mostly they have in some form. More important questions address the process in which these statements are born in organizations, the ability of their »authors« to guarantee their shared ownership across the organization, and the power of these statements to transcend from paper into hearts and minds among employees and other key stakeholders, and their contribution towards making work and other relations with organization meaningful. As several researchers found, the failure of many values, mission, and vision statements does not lie in weak innate power of these concepts, but in their poor understanding and implementation in organizations. In our research we investigated how able were contact persons in Slovene companies to represent their organization's values, mission, and vision. Our results show that less than 15% of people that are the first to pick up the phone in the company, failed at these simple tasks, suggesting that in many cases key organizational concepts are not »owned« among people who are employed to be the first contact of the outside world with the company. These results correspond to findings of other authors who warned that in many organizations values, mission and vision are vague concepts used for PR purpose and in lip-talk, failing to affect the wider corporate community. Such findings lead to conclusion that many organizations either do not understand the full power of these organizational concepts, or are poor in their implementation.

3. Age-stereotypes and -discrimination concerning aging workforce on the Hungarian labour market  [presentation, ppt, 1393 kB]
Szaszvari K.
University of Pécs, Institute of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

Ageing society of the European Union brings on increasingly compelling questions regarding social-, health- and labour market issues for the member states. This essay intends to reveal the effects of the age-stereotypes on the labour market eider on the employers’ or on the employees’ side. The organisations have to face how the knowledge of the aging employees could be used, how their work experience could be utilized, how their performance at standard level could be maintained. It is dominant question on the employees’ side as well, in spite of the increasing retiring age that how they could get on within the competition with younger employees, how they could increase their workforce value. The research studied the stereotypes about the aging workforce (above 45 years) on the Hungarian labour market, due to questionnaires on wide range of employees. The following questions were drawn: have the employees’ age-stereotypes, what is the content of it, what correlations could be established between the age and work-experience of the employees and leaders and the characteristics of age stereotypes, is there any correlation between the prejudiced personality and the usage of the age-stereotypes. Although there is very low number of researches in the field of the status of the aging workforce in Hungary, this research initiated the tangible step toward serving the aging employees work-force equal opportunity.

4. Perception of stress, its sources, physical symptoms and specificity of police officers' work  
Baboselac Marić M., Tot B.
First author's affiliation: Ministry of Internal Affairs, Zagreb, Croatia

With regards to job characteristics of police officers, it has been recognized that police work is a highly stressful job even within a group of other risk occupations. Organizational and operational aspects of a job place high expectations on a police officer. In addition to extraordinary events there are daily sources of stress affecting the psychophysical stability of police officers. In this research attempts are made to discover to what extent some of work features influence the perception of stress level, number of physical symptoms and perception of sources of stress in police officers' work. Furthermore, efforts are made in this research to ascertain differences within explored variables in regard to the level of responsibility, level of education and effective service as the police officer. Police officers (N = 590) who underwent periodical systematic medical examinations during 2007 and 2008 participated in this research. Research results reveal that job requirements and lack of social support at working environment contribute significantly to perceived level of stress. Those police officers who reveal higher number of physical symptoms have also higher stress level as well as higher number of perceived sources of stress. It has been determined that with higher level of responsibilities and education, requirements and possibility of control at work place also increases. Obtained results can be used to enhance working conditions of police officers.