Psychotherapy, clinical, counseling and health psychology 3

[4 abstracts]

1. Self-esteem changes in the course of eating disorders therapeutic programme  
Postuvan V., Hromc A.
First author's affiliation: Svetovalnica PU, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Many researches and clinical examples indicate a significant correlation between low self-esteem and eating disorders. The aim of our study was to test the changes in self-esteem in girls with eating disorders before and after the enrolment in the therapeutic programme. We applied a four dimensional self-esteem scale in the first and last week of an intensive year-long intervention. There were only female participants, aged between 17 and 27 years, involved in the study. The results at the first testing confirm previous findings that girls with eating disorders have a significantly lower self-esteem compared to the provided test population norms. On the contrary, the second testing revealed a significantly higher self-esteem in the same sample. Accordingly, the pre-post intervention changes showed a significant improvement of self-esteem in girls with eating disorders in the course of therapeutic programme. This improvement is congruent with other positive outcomes of the intervention programme, above all with the successful treatment of eating disorder.

2. Content analytic study of future time perspective in a clinical setting: Integration and continuity related to different levels of functioning  
Garami V., Jakabos H.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

Current research is aimed to study an important aspect of psychological time experience and future time perspective through content analytic method with implications to further use in clinical psychodiagnostics. Kurt Lewin defines time perspective as a basic component in human thinking and development. Thinking about the past and the future is strongly related to the sense of continuity, therefore the construction of identity. The sense of unity and integration in a personality is helped by cognitive processes of anticipating things into the future, planning, setting goals, etc. Future time perspective shows the level of a person’s reality testing, not only related to the sense of integration and continuity, but in recognizing the role of personal action in achieved outcomes, a disposition to make internal causal attributions. In the present study the subjects are psychiatry patients. The hypothesis of the study is that the content analytic coding of future time perspective – which is strongly related to effective self-regulation, cognitive control, and adequate sense of reality – shows definite differences between diagnostic groups determined by the level of the structural integration of the personality. The diagnosis is assessed according to the aspects of OPD-2 structural interview, with special emphasis on level of structural integration of the personality. The OPD-2 differentiates between four levels of personality integration (well integrated, medium, low, disintegrated). Besides the half-structured clinical interview, subjects are asked to write their „Future Autobiography”, which means they have to pretend looking back on their life from a point 20 years later. Content analytic method is used to code the various aspects of future time perspective, for example: preparation and planning, goal setting, internal causal attributions. Analysing different patterns of future time perspective could help in gaining aspects to the differential diagnosis of the structural level of functioning of the personality.

3. Effects of self efficiency training  
Pejić B., Lazić G., Žutić Milinković G.
First author's affiliation: National Employment Service of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia

Self Efficiency Training is a group counselling programme targeted at long-term unemployed persons or persons at risk of long-term unemployment. The objective of this training is to increase the motivation for active job search through self-confidence and efficiency building, development of perception of personal responsibility, more intense and persistent job search, psychological support and preparation for participation in other active employment measures. The elementary model is based on the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1985). According to this theory, the most significant indicators for predicting one's behaviour are: intention to behave in a certain manner and perceived control of behaviour. The intention is formed through positive attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behaviour control. The purpose of this paper is to define the extent to which Self Efficiency Training can influence motivation, i.e. intention of unemployed persons to actively and persistently look for a job. This research was carried out on a sample of 300 unemployed persons of different gender, age, education level, work experience and duration of unemployment. The polled filled in three questionnaires (before and after the training) related to their attitudes towards job search and efficiency in job search (Vinokur & Caplan, 1987). The results showed that training has a positive impact on participants: increased self-confidence in job search, reduced anxiety as to the number of attempts and failure, increased capacity to solve problems and focus on employment, stronger functional beliefs and weaker dysfunctional beliefs, increased capacity to assess their own efficiency in job search. The results lead to the conclusion that Self Efficiency Training has a positive impact on unemployed persons, their motivation, self-confidence, tolerance of frustration and personal responsibility in job search.

4. Relationship of stammering and the language competence (English and Urdu)  [short paper, doc, 87 kB]
Sajjad S.
Comsats Institute Of Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan

The research was conducted to find out the relationship between Language Competency and Stammering. A pilot study was conducted in which Urdu version of Test of Language Competence (TLC) was administered to speech disabled and normal group. In the second phase, both groups (N = 34, age range 18-28 years, males, education: O levels to Graduate Level) were given both English and Urdu version of TLC. Results showed that stammering people performed significantly poorly on TLC as compared to normal group. On the basis of this study it is seen that language competency is less in speech disabled group.