Psychotherapy, clinical, counseling and health psychology 2

[5 abstracts]

1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Hungarian version of Ego resiliency scale  
Jarai R.
University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

According to Letzring, Block and Funder (2004) ego resiliency (ER) refers to the dynamic capacity to contextually modify one's level of ego-control in response to situational affordances. In our pilot study we established the Hungarian version of Leztring's 15 item-self report Ego resiliency scale. In a confirmatory factor analytic procedure we calculated the goodness of fit measures and reliability scores of Ego resiliency scale. We used the original one factor scale structure for the analysis. The statistics are based on a sample of 300 subjects. The various fit measures indicate a valid and reliable Ego resiliency scale for Hungarian studies in the field of health and sport psychology.

2. Reciprocal burnout model (RBM): Interconnectedness of interpersonal and intrapersonal factors  [presentation, pps, 323 kB]
Pšeničny A.
Inštitut za razvoj človeških virov, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Most of researchers tend to link the burnout syndrome and environmental stress (interpersonal causes). Even though Freudenberger, who introduced the term burnout in 1976, thought that the burnout is a condition, that folows the preoccupation as a narcissistic need for omnipotence, reaserchers only recently focus their attention on personal characteristics of people that are experiencing burnout (intrapersonal causes). Reciprocal burnout model (RBM) links both causes. It shows why only a portion of people in same circumstances suffer from burnout syndrome. It states that personal characteristics are one of the main causes why people suffering from burnout syndrome enroll in nonreciprocal personal and professional relations and shows the role that the socialization process plays in development of these characteristics. The RMB explains the psychodynamic background of performance based self esteem (uncohesive) and four types of psychodynamic mechanisms that can lead to workoholism, which is the main symptom of burnout syndrom. The core of RBM consists in one's attitude towards his or her basic needs' fulfillment, personal system of values and correlation between fulfillment of basic needs (energy accumulation) and burning out process (energy consumption). RBM is a foundation for differentiation between burnout syndrom and smilar mental disorders and for understanding of the underlying dynamics that lead to burnout syndrom. It is also the fundament for appropriate chioce of psychotherapeutic modality for people experiencing burning out and burnout. RBM is also opening series of questions, like connection between personal traits, life satisfaction and personal values, and burnout syndrome risk behavior, as well as influence of whole life circumstances on burning out process.

3. School-to-work-transition in the emerging adulthood  
Horvath T.
Eotvos Lorand University Faculty of Education and Psychology, Budapest, Hungary

The vocational guidance is a well researched area of the psychology. At the same time the beginning of the young adult career is more neglected theme. If we want to see the whole career process, we have to pay attention to the difficulty or 'crisis' of the beginning of working life. From the complex social and economic context it can be seen how important role transitions, future expectations, job experiences and outside factors like education and economy systems are in the forming of working career. I would like to analyse these variables trough a new phenomenon, called 'quarterlife crisis'. This psychological concept respects to young, graduate adults, who want to start their adult life and who are seeking or beginning a job and it is connected to unrealistic expectations, deficient knowledge of working market, social pressure of financial well being and the responsibility of making long-term decisions about their life. These variables can lead to strong anxiety, feeling of insecurity and impotence or depression. It could be presumed that the marks of the crisis – if this is an existing concept – must appear among university students in their last semester because they are standing in the door of real, working life. According to the results of previous surveys among senior students these conditions do not lead necessarily to a crisis, but it was proved that this period can be very hard and full of insecurity. In this presentation I try to place the concept in the sociology and the psychology literature and find an answer to the question whether QC brings a new approach to these fields or not.

4. Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms among young people from three European countries and correlations between psychological distress and rumination, procrastination, perfectionism and coping  [presentation, pdf, 1767 kB]
Ederer Fick E. M., Essau C., O’Callaghan J., Bokszczanin A., Sasagawa S.
First author's affiliation: University of Graz, Department of Education, Special Education Unit, Graz, Austria

Psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and stress among young people represents a major health concern. This study compared depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms and their correlates in British, Austrian, and Polish undergraduate students (N = 1,176, Mean age = 22.9 years). The participants completed a set of self-report questionnaires which were used to measure psychological distress (Depression, anxiety, and stress scale DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), rumination (Rumination subscale of the perfectionism inventory; Hill et al., 2004), procrastination (Decisional procrastination scale; Mann 1982), perfectionism (Frost multidimensional perfectionism scale FMPS; Frost et al., 1993), and coping strategies (Ways of coping checklist questionnaire WOCC; Folkman & Lazaruz, 1984). The cohort from the Austria reported significantly lower levels of psychological distress than students from Poland or from the United Kingdom. The highest level of psychological distress was found in Poland. Females compared to males reported significantly higher scores on psychological distress as a whole, and particularly on the stress symptoms. No significant main effects were found for age groups on the DASS and on any of its subscales. In all countries, DASS total correlated significantly positive with rumination, procrastination, emotion-focused coping, and on the different dimensions of perfectionism (concern over mistakes, parental expectations, parental criticism, doubts about actions). In each country, rumination was a significant predictor of psychological distress. On the background of these results clinical implications in the development of prevention and intervention programmes to address psychological distress among students in the university settings will be discussed.

5. Back to life, back to the origins -Thoughts and experiences about The Focusing method   
Bencze E.
University of Pécs, PHD School in Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

In the beginning of our lives we organise our experiences about the world, about our relations and even about ourselves through body felts and body impressions. Our self is organised through the relative persistence and unity of the body in space and in time, as well as through the body felts (posture, condition of the muscles, skin - the so called skin-ego, smell, flavour, sound). The development of the infant later opens new self-senses and organising powers for the todler that will operate and form together continuously with the first sense of an emergent self by Stern. Focusing is a kind of relaxation technique grew out by Gendlin. The aim of focusing is to pay attention to the felt senses of the body and the images, words, smells, memories or sounds that adjunct to them. Our deeper and wiser self („the body”) that knows the background and the relations of our problems, and even the specific, individual and creative, therefore effective solutions of them. In my presentation I would like to point out the connection between the methodological elements of focusing (trance-like state, glaze, clearing a space, felt sense, handle, resonating, mirroring) and the early, preverbal development through the narrative analyses of interviews that were made by university students (n=50) who had participated in focusing groups.