Personality and individual differences

[18 abstracts]

1. Women closed in body: The body image and self-esteem of young women went through cosmetic surgery  
Alfoldi L., Lábadi B.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institut of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

This study investigates the psychology of cosmetic surgery among young women. Previous studies have allocated symptoms of body dismorphic disorder by the significant fraction of those women, who submitted or went through a plastic surgery. The aim of this research was to find out the change and pathology development of the body image and self-esteem by patients went through cosmetic surgery. We compared cosmetic surgery patients (N= 20, mean age=28,8) and a control group (university women N= 28, mean age =24,86) on different questionnaires (Tenessee Self Concept Scale, EDI: perfectionism subscle, Self-Report Mirror Gazing Questionnaire, Self Esteem- Scale, Body- and Self Image Questionnaire). The results showed that there are remarkable differences between the two groups in judgments of their body and themselves, in anxiety, in satisfaction with appearance, and in the reaction of the aesthetic stimulus and expectations of their social environment. The results are discussed due to personality traits and cognitive theory.

2. Personal goals and trait emotional intelligence as predictors of domains of life-satisfaction  
Avsec A., Bajec B., Takšić V.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Many studies confirmed the importance of trait emotional intelligence for subjective well-being but specific domains of life-satisfaction was rarely of interest. One can assume the greater importance of emotional intelligence for domains, related to interpersonal or communion-related domains, such as satisfaction with friends, intimate partners… than to agentic domains (e.g. work, competence), where emotional intelligence should be of less importance. Beside emotional intelligence, the content of personal goals as predictors of domain satisfaction was of interest. On the basis of value orientation studies, we predicted that higher communion-oriented personal goals should be related to higher satisfaction in communion oriented domains and higher agency-oriented personal goals to higher satisfaction in agency related domains. We also examined possible moderator effects of emotional intelligence in personal goals and domain satisfaction relationship. 230 participants aged from 18 to 60 years took part in our Internet study. They completed Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), Personal goals questionnaire (PGQ), and the list of domains of life satisfaction. Results confirmed the importance of emotional intelligence and personal goals for most of the life domains Emotional intelligence and personal goals explained independent parts of variance of domain satisfaction. Motivational aspect of personality, often neglected in well-being research, seems to add an important variance to domains of life-satisfaction beside of emotional intelligence.

3. The effect of facial attractiveness on the judgment about altruism and "free riding"  
Béla B., Tamás B.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institut of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

In the present study, we were curious how the attractiveness of faces is related to the judgments about cooperativeness. In the light of previous studies we expected that the participants attribute less selfishness and more altruism to an attractive face and on the other hand, they regard less attractive faces as more selfish and less altruistic. Photographs of male and female faces were presented to the participants. These pictures were differentiated by their attractiveness: "very attractive", "attractive" and "non-attractive". In one set of experimental groups a self-report was associated with each picture that contained the person's opinion how she/he would behave in a specific, teamwork situation. Some of them were depicted as altruistic, others as exploitative person. Three kinds of pictures were shown to participants (altruistic, exploitative, and picture without self-report). The participants were also asked to fill out a checklist about the persons' perceived negative and positive features. A few days later, the participants completed a recognition task. The pictures were presented pair-wise on a computer screen and the participants were asked to choose those photos they had seen in the first experimental phase. Reaction time was also measured. Our findings indicate that female participants are sensitive to the attractiveness of male faces but not to female faces. They recognized the "very attractive" and "attractive" male pictures faster than non-attractive ones, regardless of whether these pictures were associated with self-report or not. Male participants did not show significant differences in reaction time. However, when only the "non-attractive" faces were considered, both male and female participants reached significantly shorter reaction times if the presented pictures were characterized as an altruistic rather than a selfish person.

4. Coping strategies of children with learning disability in situation of frustration  
Bolla V.
Apáczai Csere János Faculty of the University of West Hungary, Major of Education for children with special needs, Győr, Hungary

Owing to the variances turning up at the early stage of psychological development in case of children with learning disabilities specific abilities are not functioning reliably; therefore these children are blocked in reaching acceptable learning performance expected by level of their intelligence and age. Disorders in abilities are not manifested as changes of performance alone but concern the whole personality and influence its development. The aim of this research was to compare the reactions of two groups of children in everyday life situations of frustration: children with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities (control group). Sixty 9–14 year-old children, supposed to be a representative group by age and intelligence performance, took Picture Frustration Test (Rosenzweig, 1950). The results revealed that, in a frustrating situation, children with learning disabilities show direct aggression toward the surroundings, whereas members of the control group reply with aggression toward themselves or avoid aggression and talk over bagatelle. Due to the significant differences, I intend to disclose coping strategies and personality factors protecting against stress in children with learning disabilities.

5. Relations between mate selection and the Big Five model of personality  [presentation, pdf, 2273 kB]
Dinic B., Rakic B.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Belgrade, Serbia

The aim of this research was to examine relationships between heterosexual mate selection criteria and personality dimensions. Participants (274) were balanced by gender, aged 18-59. Mate selection criteria were measured using the KIP110 questionnaire (Dinic, 2005) which is operationalized through six criteria: competency, emotional investment and connivance, excitement, social status and similar origin, specific interest and similar interest (intellect). Personality dimensions were measured using the BFI (John, Donahue, Kentle, 1991). Results have shown that competency and emotional investment and connivance, as main criteria for mate selection, positively correlate with all personality dimensions except Neuroticism. Excitement has shown positive correlations with Extraversion, Agreeableness and Openness, and negative with Neuroticism. Further, social status and similar origin have shown positive correlations with Conscientiousness and negative with Openness, and similar interest have shown positive correlations only with Openness. Specific interest did not show significant correlations with Big Five dimensions, probably because of weak psychometric characteristic. This study provides empirical evidence that personality play important role in the mating process and suggest mating based on similarity.

6. Personality and coping in patients with chronic diseases  
Kerekes Z., Tiringer I., Netling I., Toth M., Bors P., Palfi I.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Pécs, Hungary

Patients with chronic diseases may suffer from variety of problems (effects of the disease itself, the therapy, psychosocial consequences). The proposal of this investigation is to find out whether there are any personality factors which can play important part in coping with cancer, cardiac diseases (myocardial infarct) psoriasis and IBD (includes M. Crohn and colitis ulcerosa). During the investigation we used the standardized, self-report versions of TCI, BDI and FKV-LIS questionnaires. 38 people were diagnosed with psoriasis, 42 with cancer, 50 with myocardial infarct, 26 patients with IBD. We also have data from 39 healthy control persons corrected by age and sex according to the patient groups. We found that depressive coping strategy, active and problem-focused coping were significantly higher in psoriasis group, than in the control. Active, problem-focused coping was the most significant coping style in all patients groups, most of all in the cancer patients group. We can determine that in the IBD as well in psoriasis and cancer group the Harm Avoidance TCI factor had a higher value than in the control group and the Self-directedness and Cooperativeness factors were lower. In the psoriasis group the Novelty Seeking is lower than in IBD and in control group, but the Cooperativeness was similar to the IBD group. Cancer patients have the highest Self-transcendence. Besides the personality differences, the patient’s depression rate is also an important factor for coping with the illnesses. The BDI results show a higher level of depression rate in IBD and psoriasis group. Obviously further investigation on higher patient number and longitudinal design is necessary to map the differences more adequately in the future.

7. Correlation between mother's and daughter's body image regarding the quality of their relationship  
Koračin N., Pirnar Z., Vidmar L.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

In our research we were interested whether mother's body image is related to the daugter's one. Previous researches indicate that mother influence on daughter's body image through process of identification, quality of relationship and daughter's imitation of mother behaviour. Mothers more often criticize daughter's physical look, weight and give them advice about diets. Additionaly, we focused on the question, whether the quality of mother-daughter attachment is related to the magnitude of the relationship between mother's and daughter's body images. 52 mothers and their daughters filled out three measures of body image (BES, SDQIII, CSW) and the measure of attachment quality ECR-R. The results confirmed our expectations about the positive relations between weight and figure on BES and CSW. Our further assumption that the relation between mother's and daughter's body image with the secure attachment styles would be higher than that of the non-secure attachment styles was not confirmed. The possible cause of it could be our categorization of the secure and non-secure attachment styles.

8. The comparison of measuring attachment with a questionnaire and the measurement range of the Szondi test  
Kormos K., Török I., Nagygyörgy K., Lacsán K., Korchmáros Z., Kőváry Z.
First author's affiliation: University of Szeged, Department of Psychology, Szeged, Hungary

Several examinations prove that the dysfunctions of the attachment influence the psychiatric vulnerability and may cause different psychiatric dysfunctions. In our study, we used the Hungarian version of two current questionnaire methods (ECR-R, AAS) and the vectors of the Szondi test measuring attachment on the sample of the normal population of 80 people (aged 20–26). During the examination, we used the two-profile method of Szondi-Mérei; one was recorded before filling in the questionnaires and one after it. Thus, for the second time, the effect of the attachment-experience also appeared by the attachment questionnaires. We compared the attachment styles given by the questionnaire with the inherent constellation of vectors Szondi ‘C’ and ‘S’. Some constellations of factor Szondi ‘C’ were related significantly more often to secure, avoiding, and anxious attachment styles. In case of secure attachment style, we received significantly more often the Szondi ‘C’ factor 0+, -+ and -0 constellations. In case of avoiding and anxious attachment, the ++ constellation also appeared whereas the -+ constellation was typical of avoiding and secure attachment styles. We had to pay attention to the intimate signs of factor ‘h’. We conclude that the 0+ constellation is the sign of the secure attachment. The ++ sign can be interpreted in a way that attachment is not sufficient, anxious searching may emerge. That is why the anxious attachment or avoiding attachment can appear as a form of reaction. According to the study, the Szondi test does not categorize so accurately, but the behaviour and motivations can be understood more clearly.

9. Creativity and the elaboration of aggression  
Kőváry Z., Török I., Látos M.
First author's affiliation: Institution of Psychology, University of Science of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

A number of psychoanalysts and psychologists came to the conclusion that creativity and aggression are affecting each other: aggression feeds man's pursuit to cope with inner and external obstacles successfully, and creative process – by Freud's original theory on sublimation – helps us to express our aggression in a socially acceptable form. Arts also have a special psychological function in regulating affective states of the Self. We therefore assumed that there will be a negative correlation between creativity and anger acting out. To verify our hypothesis, we used Torrance's (1960) test to measure creativity (originality) and Spielberger’s Anger In-Anger Out Scale (Perczel, Kiss, Ajtay, 2007) to study the style of coping with anger. To examine if there is a connection between low level creativity and authoritarianism, we also used the Hungarian adaptation of F-scale (Fábián, 1998). We studied 18-year-old Hungarian students: art high-school students (N = 75) and control regular high-school students (N = 75). The whole sample scored 19.6 on the Anger Out scale, which is higher than the Hungarian standard value. Students with above-mean Non Verbal Originality (NVO) on Torrance test had lower Anger Out values than the group with below-mean NVO. Students in art high-school scored higher on F-scale than regular high-school students. These findings confirm that people with lower NVO (less creativity) tend to act their anger out more then people with higher NVO. It seems that creative persons show less hostility, because they have the way to elaborate their negative emotions.

10. Friendship and parental treatment: How early childraising habits effect adult friendship features  
Lassú Z. F.
Eötvös Lóránd University, Faculty of Elementary and Nursery School Teacher Training, Budapest, Hungary

This paper investigated the effect that perceived parental treatment had on adult friendships. College students (N=345, 161 men and 184 women) were asked about their relationships with their best friends and their memories of how their parents treated or mistreated them during their childhood. The relationship between the two was derived from factor and cluster analysis. Gender differences were also part of the focus. Memories of a mothers' treatment are found to be more influential on adult friendships for both sexes than the fathers' treatment for both sexes, especially for women. Results showed that mistreatment by the adults' mothers and fathers had different effects on the level of intimacy and supportiveness in their friendships.

11. Correlation of aggressiveness with self-image, self-esteem and optimism  [presentation, pdf, 1628 kB]
Marčič R.
Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation of two personal factors with aggressiveness. The first was self-image and its aspect: self-esteem. No significant correlations were presumed between aggressiveness and self-image or between aggressiveness and self-esteem, because previous research gave inconsistent results. More recent research has shown that there may be other aspects of self-esteem that are more relevant for its relation to aggressiveness, i.e. fragility of high self-esteem (Baumeister, Smart, & Boden, 1996; Kernis, 2003; Kernis, Grannemann, & Barclay, 1989). Therefore significant correlations between aggressiveness and fragile high self-esteem were presumed. The second personal factor, which might correlate with aggressiveness, was optimism. Existing data report of negative connection between optimism and aggressiveness, which was also presumed in this research. These presumptions were examined on a sample of more than 50 women, aged 19 to 34, who were college students or had a college degree. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss and Perry, 1992) was used to measure aggressiveness, Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-image and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure the level of self-esteem. The fragility of self-esteem was measured in three ways: with the measurement of false responses about the level of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem and instability of self-esteem. The Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale - revised and Life Orientation Test - revised were used to measure optimism. The results showed that only hostility, as a form of aggression, was related to self-image and the level of self-esteem. Other forms of aggression were not significantly related to self-image and the level of self-esteem. Fragile high self-esteem was related to summary aggression and some specific forms of aggression, especially hostility. Optimism was correlated with hostility and physical aggression, but not with other forms of aggression.

12. Increased media exposition of the erotic contents and the psychosexual maturation in prepuberty and puberty  
Nagygyörgy K., Kormos K., Török I., Kőváry Z.
First author's affiliation: University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

From the point of view of the socialisation effects of media contents in the past few years, analyses concerning the erotic representation of muliebrity appeared which suggest that sexual attractiveness is transmitted primarily to young girls as a requirement. The presentation of the fashionable lesbian relationship is not well studied area. According to the media representation, kiss can be a part of the intimacy between women, which otherwise allows more physical intimity. We studied whether these representations form the image of young boys about female sexualism. In our survey 523 students aged 12 and 16 were asked how much bisexual content they could see in different kinds of genres and what cognitive and emotional effects (acceptance and rejection) were caused by these contents. The results showed that the lesbian erotic relationship with passionate kiss was spotted on the main TV programmes in an astonishingly high rate. There was a significant difference between students aged 12 and 16. At the age of 12 years, rejection, loathness and surprise were high in boys, whereas at the age of 16 the same held true for girls only. According to the results media representation causes increased reflexion concerning own sexualism. If the negative emotional effect is too intense, a post-trauma concerning sexual identity might develop, and in a milder case imperfect integration of sexual desires might occur.

13. Psychomotor and intelligence attribution as self esteem maintenance  
Nouri A., Salahian A., Oreizi H.
First author's affiliation: Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

According to literature on social cognition, people usually accept the validity of favorable evaluation to their source and conversely derogate the source of unfavorable evaluations. They express their affirmative affect toward the result of achievement tests when they have done well on it; vice versa they derogate the test's results when they believe they have done poorly. The aim of the current research was to test these claims. Undergraduate students of psychology (N = 149)responded to three psychomotor tests (called Pattern, Precision and Coordinance test, from Flanagan Aptitude Classification Tests or FACT) and General Intelligence tests (from General Aptitude Test Battery). Then, they received counterfactual feedbacks about outcomes of their performance on Intelligence and Psychomotor tests. Then, they responded to a test that investigators pretended to be the judgment and comprehension test from FACT. On this constructed test, equal positive statements were included on applying intelligence and psychomotor tests, as well as negative statements on applying intelligence and psychomotor tests was included. Subjects should report their conclusions about these prepositions. Findings showed that subjects who received negative feedbacks about their performance on general intelligence test disparaged them, while negative feedbacks about performance on psychomotor tests didn't produce negative reactions. Conclusions indicated that self-esteem is more sensitive to intelligence than psychomotor performance, because people attribute intelligence more than psychology performance to their self concept.

14. The impact of emotional arousal on memory  
Pupić-Bakrač A., Kovač R.
First author's affiliation: University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia

According to the attention narrowing hypothesis, emotional excitement directs the focus of attention on stimuli which cause emotions and make the focus of attention on other information considerably reduced. As high anxious subjects tend to focus attention on negatively affected stimuli more often than the low, the aim of this study was to determine the difference between low and high anxious subjects in the number of correctly recognized neutral black-and-white drawings and time needed for their recognition, as well as accuracy in retrieving emotionally affected pictures. Fourteen subjects, seven high and seven low anxious, participated in the study. Pictures from the IAPS (International Affective Picture System) basis were taken as an emotionally affected stimulus. Black-and-white drawings of everyday objects were used as neutral material. Neutral black-and-white drawings and emotionally affected stimulus (positive, neutral or negative pictures) were presented simultaneously for 3, 6 or 9 seconds. After five minute period, during which subjects were solving signal detection task, they were asked to recognize neutral black-and-white drawings, as well as retrieve emotionally affected pictures. The accuracy of recognition was recorded for drawings and pictures, and recognition time for drawings. The results showed no difference between high and low anxious subjects in the number of recognized neutral black-and-white drawings presented with all categories of emotionally affected pictures, as well as in recognizing time. There was the lowest number of recognized drawings when they were presented with negatively affected pictures, and that was followed with the longest recognizing time at all intervals of the exposition. The greatest number of recognized black-and-white drawings was when they were presented with positively affected pictures. Low anxious subjects were more successful in retrieving negatively affected pictures than high anxious, while there was no difference between these two groups in retrieving positively and neutrally affected pictures.

15. Examining the efficiency in tasks of signal detection within subjects with different personality traits  
Škrinjarić L.
University of Zadar, Department of Psychology, Zadar, Croatia

Previous researches showed subject's efficiency decline in performing a monotonous task, like Mackworth's clock, as the function of task duration. It has also been shown that there is a difference in the task performing efficiency regarding the signal detection between introverts and extroverts. This is usually explained by higher level of cortical arousal within introverts for which they show lower decline of efficiency than the extroverts. The aim of this research was to examine the changes of efficiency in detecting signals of different duration with regard to dimensions of extroversion and neuroticism, and to determine possible changes within the parameters of ECG in the function of task duration within subjects with different personality traits. The research was performed on a group of students (N = 20). On the basis of results obtained by Eysenck's personality questionnaire, the subjects were divided into 2 groups, with 10 subjects each (with regard to the dimensions of extraversion). During the research a computer with an adequate software (Mackworths's clock) and an ECG device (PowerLab System) were used. As expected, changes within all parameters regarding subjects' efficiency in the function of task duration were found, except for the proportion of false alarms. Subject's efficiency significantly decreases as a function of task duration. Statistically significant difference between extroverts and introverts was found only for the proportion of false alarms. Although introverts showed a tendency of better efficiency than the extroverts, the differences between groups were not significant on any examined efficiency parameter. Changes in heart frequency and sinus arrhythmia (mean values of R-R intervals and parameters of SD and SDD) showed a general tendency of tranquilizing subjects' organism as a function of task duration, as well as the differences between personality traits. Introverts had a lower mean values and lower variability of R-R intervals (SD and SDD).

16. Relationship among some sexuality dimensions, life satisfaction and sexual experience  
Šunjić M., Škegro I., Barišić M.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Philoshophy, University of Mostar, Mostar, BIH

Sexual satisfaction and adjustment are important aspects of satisfaction with one's intimate relationship and with life satisfaction generally. Some individuals, however, experience problems and frustrations concerning sexual aspect of their relationship, which are mainly due to individual differences in human sexuality. Snell (1998) developed a questionnaire that deals with three not enough explored dimensions of human sexuality: sexual-esteem, sexual-depression and sexual-preoccupation. It may be argued that sexual-preoccupation is the result of previous learning in the domain of sexuality, while sexual-esteem and sexual-depression reflect previous individual sexual experiences. Following this argument, the aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships amongst these three dimensions, as well as some aspects of sexual experience (having a sexual partner, satisfaction with sexual life, pornography watching), and life satisfaction. The instruments used included a socio-demographic questionnaire, Sexuality Scale (Snell, 2001) and Life Satisfaction Scale (Penezić, 1996). They were administered to the sample of 186 students (95 males and 91 females). According to expectations, the factor structures of the two scales were confirmed. Results indicate that there are differences in three sexuality dimensions regarding gender. Furthermore, the results showed significant correlations between the results on the two scales and the three aspects of sexual experience. There were also significant correlations between the sexuality dimensions and life satisfactions.

17. Constructive validity of Croatian version of Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS)  
Tatalovic Vorkapic S., Lučev I., Tadinac M.
First author's affiliation: Teacher Education College, Dept. of Preschool Education, Rijeka, Croatia

The aim of this study was to examine construct validity of Pavlovian temperament survey (PTS) by determining relationship between three Strelau´s dimensions of temperament (strength of excitation, strength of inhibition, mobility) and basic dimensions of personality that were defined by Eysenck and in 5-factor model of personality. It was expected that strength of excitation and mobility will have significant positive correlations with extraversion and negative correlations with neuroticism, while strength of inhibition will show significant negative correlations with neuroticism. First part of study was conducted on a sample of 74 female students with age average of 22. Pavlovian temperament dimensions were assessed with Croatian version of PTS (Lučev, Tadinac-Babić & Tatalović, 2002) and five basic dimensions of personality were measured by Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire, FF-NPQ (Paunonen, Ashton & Johnston, 2001). Second part of study included sample of 54 female students of psychology, with age average of 20, who completed PTS and EPQ R/A which measures dimensions of personality developed by Eysenck (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994). Reliability coefficients for all three instruments used in this study were satisfactory but not very high. Coefficients of correlation determined in the first study were mostly not in agreement with what could be theoretically expected and empirical results of other authors, probably due to low reliability and unclear factor structure of FF-NPQ. However, results of the second study confirmed expected pattern of correlations: rSE&E=.41, p<.01, rMO&E=.65, p<.01, rSE&N=-.67, p<.01, rMO&N=-.56, p<.01 and rSI&N=-.36, p<.01, and this can be considered an indicator of good construct validity of PTS.

18. Narcissism and empathy among actors and non-actors  
Vervega D., Veselko K., Voljavec A.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

The purpose of our research was to examine the presence of some personality characteristics stereotypically attributed to actors in a group of actors and non-actors. With the use of NPI and IRI questionnaires we measured the degree of narcissism and empathy of 142 participants of average age 26,41 years, who were equally represented by sex and with regard to their possession or lack of acting experiences. Considering the past research done in this field we hypothesized that actors would be more narcissistic than non-actors, but the results did not support this hypothesis. Although some authors report about a higher degree of narcissism of male non-actors and female actors, we found no significant statistical differences in the degree of narcissism either between males and females or between actors and non-actors. Although most researchers came to the conclusion that females are more empathic than males, we found no significant statistical differences between males and females, among either actors or non-actors. According to the total IRI result actors indeed appear to be more empathic than non-actors, but we ascribe this to the fact that on the subscale measuring imaginational empathic ability actors attained results below our expectations.

Educational psychology

[6 abstracts]

1. Are girls really socially more competent than boys?  
Ajdišek N., Pečjak S.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Social skills include different behaviours which help an individual to enter and interact in interpersonal relations. On the other hand, these skills are also learnt through the very same experience. Social skills are also an important factor of students' acceptance and popularity among their peers, and also a factor of their academic achievement. In our research we were interested in the way teachers assessed students' social skills. 907 students participated in the study, of which 470 were 7th grade primary school students (231 boys and 239 girls), and 437 3th grade secondary school students (176 boys and 261 girls). Merrell's School Social Behaviour Scales (1992) were used for the assessment of students' social skills and class teachers filled in the questionnaire for each participating student. The questionnaire includes six subscales, of which the first three refer to adaptive, prosocial behaviour in school situations, e.g. students' social competence (peer relations, self management/compliance, and academic behaviour). Other three subscales describe socially incompetent behaviour which is directed against others and leads to socially negative outcomes (hostile/irritable behaviour, antisocial-aggressive behaviour, and defiant/disruptive behaviour). Results of the two-way ANOVA showed teachers assessed girls as socially more competent on all subscales regardless of their school level. Academic behaviour was the only subscale on which there were significant differences between primary and secondary school students – primary school students were assessed higher than secondary school students, although again at both levels girls scored higher. The results bring up a question whether girls are really socially more skilled or perhaps our findings just reflect teachers’ perceptions, which might be biased. Further on, the results lead us to think what is it that contributes to better (perceived) social skills of girls and how to form such learning situations which will support development of social competence for all students, boys and girls.

2. Doing it now or later? Correlates, predictors and prevention of academic, decisional and general procrastination among students in Austria  [presentation, pdf, 3035 kB]
Essau C. A., Ederer Fick E., O’Callaghan J., Aschemann B.
First author's affiliation: School of Human and Life Sciences, Roehampton University, Whitelands College, London, United Kingdom

Procrastination has been defined as the tendency to postpone what is necessary to reach some goal. Because of its negative consequences (e.g., poor grades, course withdrawal, engagement in self-handicapping behaviour, low self-confidence and self-esteem), higher education policy is called upon to deal with the problem of procrastination, especially in light of the increasing average duration of studies. This study, in which 480 Austrian students participated, is unique because of its inclusion of a wide range of psychological constructs found to be related to procrastination. The following set of questionnaires was used: Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984), Decisional Procrastination Scale (Mann, 1982), General Procrastination Scale (Lay, 1986), Self-Regulation Questionnaire (Carey et al., 2004), Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost et al., 1990), Ways of Coping Checklist (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Academic, decisional and general procrastination was found to be, to a significant degree, negatively correlated with self-regulatory behaviour, organization and problem-focused coping, whereas all three types of procrastination were, to a significant degree, associated positively with emotion-focused coping, depression and anxiety. Furthermore, self-regulation and organization were found to be the outstanding predictors of all three types of procrastination. Consequently, our prevention programme against procrastination is focused on project management tools (time and content planning and monitoring) on the one hand, and the strengthening of intellectual and motivational personal resources on the other hand. A progress plan for a thesis project will be introduced. Dividing the project into subtasks (modules), as it is common practice in project management, supports self-regulation, organization and problem-focused coping, thus facilitating the prevention of procrastination.

3. Psychological correlates of blended learning in higher education  
Kada O., Brunner E., Zwischenberger R.
First author's affiliation: Carinthia University of Applied Sciences (CUAS), Feldkirchen, Austria

Blended learning, a combination of traditional teaching and e-learning (Akkoyunlu & Yılmaz-Soylu, 2008), is becoming increasingly important in higher education. It can be assumed that psychological variables – like self-efficacy (Bandura, 1966), attitudes (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) and past behaviour (Velicer & Prohaska, 2008) which have proven useful in the prediction of primarily health behaviour – play a role in the use of blended learning. This assumption was confirmed in several studies. In the context of e-learning Johnson et al. (2008) identified application-specific computer self-efficacy as a significant predictor of course instrumentality, performance and satisfaction. Furthermore, computer self-efficacy predicted nursing students’ intention to use online courses (Tung & Chang, in press, 2008). Computer self-efficacy also predicted attitudes towards computing as well as computing competence (Downey & McMurtrey, 2007). A positive attitude towards e-learning is correlated with a high intensity of computer use and greater experiences with computer-based and web-based training (Link & Marz, 2006). The association of these psychological variables in the context of blended learning in healthcare management study courses of the Carinthia University of Applied Sciences (CUAS) will be investigated. A questionnaire measuring the following aspects was developed: past experience with the blended learning tools of the CUAS, blended learning specific self-efficacy, attitudes towards blended learning, perceived usefulness for study and workplace, and intention to use web applications in the workplace. Students of healthcare management will be surveyed. Full-time and part-time students will be compared. The results will help to identify students in need for additional support. Offering students access to blended learning tools and helping them develop a positive attitude might encourage the use of such technologies in workplace learning.

4. Conditions and effects of teachers’ motivation: Perspectives on self-determination theory  
Müller F. H., Hanfstingl B., Andreitz I.
First author's affiliation: University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria

The theoretical basis of the study is a multidimensional perspective of motivation, the so-called self-determination theory (SDT) of Deci and Ryan (2002). The theory proposes that perceived support of basic psychological needs (support of autonomy, support of competence, and social relatedness) are associated with intrinsic motivation or self-determined forms of extrinsic motivation. Accordingly, SDT proposes taxonomy of types of regulation for extrinsic motivation that differ in the degree to which they represent self-determination (continuum of regulation from controlled to autonomous, from amotivated to intrinsically motivated). Following this theoretical approach and taking the study of Pelletier and his colleagues (2002) into account the following research questions for our study can be formulated: (1) If teachers perceive their working conditions as supportive and feel free from pressure, will they be highly motivated (self-determined) and will they create supportive learning environments for their students?(2) If students’ basic needs in the classroom are satisfied, will they perceive themselves as self-determined?(3) Do self-determined students show more interest, a higher content-related self-concept, and less fear in classroom? The study was performed in mathematics and science classes. The sample includes about 1400 students and 60 teachers from Austrian secondary schools. The results of a structural equation model show that perceived pressure/support from the school system as well as from the single school is directly and indirectly associated with teachers’ self-determination, classroom instruction and students self-determined learning motivation. The study seeks to make both a theoretical and practical contribution.

5. Sociostructural, psychosocial, personality, and educational profile of students from different schools of Slovenian secondary education  
Musil B.
University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia

The contribution is aimed to present some results and findings from several studies, conducted among Slovenian secondary school students in years from 2005 to 2008. In all presented studies the students of different upper secondary, technical and vocational schools from public and private sphere were compared according to sociostructural variables (socioeconomic conditions, family size), psychosocial (parental closeness and control, anomy, alienation), personality (self-esteem, social anxiety, locus of control) and educational variables (school achievement, perception of past education, school attachment). In partial studies some other psychosocial and psychological variables were processed (values, achievement motivation, narcissism, intellectual ability). Distinctive patterns of students from different types of schools were further analyzed to gain more detailed picture of Slovenian secondary education sphere.

6. Identifying the patterns of students’ goal orientations  
Sorić I., Burić I., Vulić-prtorić A.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Zadar, Croatia

There are a number of different models of goal orientations in academic settings that have been developed by different researchers. The most of these models propose two general goal orientations that concern the reasons students are pursuing when approaching and engaging in a learning task. They are labelled learning and performance goals (Pintrich, 2003). Niemivirta (1996) distinguished a third type of goal orientation: work-avoidance goal orientation. The aim of this study was to examine classification of students into groups considering different goal orientations and to compare those groups in some other variables relevant for self-regulated learning process (gender, general self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, values, perceived academic control, academic achievement and expectancy of future academic achievement). The participants were 335 adolescents (aged between 13 and 17 years) which completed the questionnaires anonymously during a regularly scheduled classroom period. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify students into four groups according to their pattern of goal orientations: first group consisted of students with very low score on learning goal orientation and very high score on performance and work-avoidance goal orientations; second group consisted of students with very low score on learning and performance goals and very high score on work-avoidance goal orientations; third group included students with very high score on all goal orientations and fourth group included students with very high score on learning orientations and low score on performance and work-avoidance orientations. Obtained statistical analyses revealed differences between identified groups of students concerning their academic self-efficacy, learning task value, perception of academic control, and expectancy of future academic achievement. Particularly, the second group students have the lowest self-esteem, the lowest perceived academic control, the lowest expectancy of future achievement and they do not value learning tasks very highly.

Psychotherapy, clinical, counseling and health psychology

[10 abstracts]

1. Meta analysis of the research conducted in the field of some obstetric risk factors for postpartum depression in Iran within 1995-2005  
Bahadoran P., Ehsanpoor S., Abedi A., Shokrani S.
First author's affiliation: Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran

Mood disorders including postpartum depression are among the most important mental health disorders in postpartum period. There are numerous independent studies conducted in Iranian scientific and research centers but their meta analytic evaluation can yield practical and precise result. This is a meta analytic research using Hunter and Schmiedt approach. The subjects comprised 11 research projects and dissertations conducted in Iran within 1995-2005 based on a standard check list. The researches based on methodological parameters entered the study. The check list validity and reliability were respectively confirmed by content validity and consistency index. After summarizing the results, the effect size was calculated and combined based on meta-analysis approach and then commented according to Cohen chart. According to the calculated effect size, the finding of this research for postpartum depression revealed two factors with low association (pariety, type of delivery) and one factor with almost moderate association (unwanted pregnancy) with postpartum depression. The results are indicating importance of the detection and prevention of unwanted pregnancy by educating the spouses, family and health team staffs for an efficient step in women's health promotion.

2. Investigating risky sexual behaviour – A mission (im)possible?  
Brajović T., Brunner E.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Although the number of adolescent pregnancies has declined since the 2000 in Slovenia, and condoms are used relatively frequently (Pinter et. al., 2006), investigating adolescent risky sexual behaviour (RSB) still appears to be necessary. Most of the studies being conducted so far have been oriented only towards limited aspects of RSB (e.g. intentions, attitudes), although this behaviour appears to be associated with various factors such as characteristics of the individual (specific emotions before/during/after the sexual intercourse with a partner), of the developmental stage (e.g. personal fable) and social interactions with others (e.g. negotiating safer sex). Developing an inventory for measuring RSB of adolescents is afflicted with some difficulties: operationalizing domains of RSB; forming items of high content validity which are going to include behaviours and situations in which (risky) sexual behaviour of adolescents occurs; application of qualitative and/or quantitative methods and theories essential for explaining RSB. The lack of definitions of RSB in the literature also makes it difficult to form such an instrument. Based on the knowledge presented on the poster, a questionnaire of RSB for adolescents was developed. It is going to be used in a research focusing on the connection between RSB and psychological characteristics of adolescents. Thus, the poster represents the announcement of a future research of RSB which is going to have some theoretical as well as some practical implications - for example designing contemporary programmes for adolescent health promotion.

3. Stress, appraisal and coping in nursing home residents relocated to hospitals: Outline of a research project in progress   
Janig H., Kada O.
First author's affiliation: Alps-Adriatic University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria

Nursing home residents are frequently relocated to hospitals; a substantial proportion of these hospitalizations is potentially preventable (Grabowski et al., 2008). For Europe there is a lack of data in this area (Ramroth et al., 2006). A hospital stay itself can lead to functional decline in the elderly (Creditor, 1993) and hospitalization adds a change in environment and habits and a dependence on others (Bruchon-Schweitzer et al., 1995). Terms like ‘relocation stress’ or ‘transfer shock’ indicate the assumed negative consequences associated with relocation and hospitalization (Castle, 2001; Manion & Rantz, 1995). Many empirical work was done on mortality and morbidity in the elderly following relocation (Castle, 2001), but little is known about the stress process during such experiences. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984) appraisal and coping are essential components of the stress process. Self-constructed items and open-ended questions are used to assess the stressors experienced by hospitalized nursing home residents as well as primary appraisal (threat, harm/loss, and challenge), secondary appraisal and the employed coping strategies. Perceived stress is measured by the German version of the Perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ; Fliege et al., 2001). The Sense of coherence (SOC; Antonovsky, 1997) – a protective factor regarding stress – is assessed using the SOC-L9 (Singer & Brähler, 2007). Lazarus (2000) points out the importance of multiple assessments in order to be able to capture changes in the stress experience as the situation proceeds. Hence, in the present study subjects are interviewed shortly after admission (t1) and after a few days of familiarization (t2). Additionally, in a second step, the documentations of a Carinthian hospital are analysed to describe the frequency of patient transfers from nursing homes to hospitals as well as patient characteristics and the proportion of potentially avoidable transportations.

4. The stigma of mental illness: A mixed methods study in a rural area of Austria.  
Jenull B., Salem I., Brunner E.
First author's affiliation: Alps-Adria University, Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria

Psychiatric reforms have reduced the number and length of in-patient treatment and improved community services for persons with mental illness. In order to provide mental health care in best possible proximity to their homes, transparency of offered services and rapid access to mobile social services are needed. We combined qualitative and quantitative methods to reach comprehensive and practically relevant findings from the perspectives of the user group, their family members and the mental health care professionals (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). The user group and their family members (n = 83) were surveyed regarding their individual situation, current strains, experienced stigmatisation and level of social support. Furthermore, we interviewed experts in the community service (N = 44). Results show that an essential amount of mental health care is delivered by primary care physicians. As far as networking and training needs are concerned, the experts showed significant differences in opinions. Whilst staff of mobile services and social facilities located serious flaws, general practitioners did not see any need for action. Beside difficulties in accessibility and low availability of mental health care services in the rural area, all three target groups considered the taboo topic of stigmatisation as one of the main problems in the district. People with mental disorders are less likely to receive necessary care due to the reported low acceptance and tolerance.

5. Relations between dental fear in 8- to 10-year-old children and in their parents  
Kovács E., Kerekes Z., Szanto I.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Pécs, Hungary

Authors investigated dental fear in groups of children from two primary schools in Hungary. Among 8 to 10 years old children’s (N = 67) dental fear was measured with "Children's Dental Fear Survey". The participants parents' dental fear was examined with "Dental Fear Survey", together with their social background, education level, and marital status. To compare the two groups they characterized the parents' effect on the children’s dental fear. In this population the effect of parents' dental fear did not show influence on the children's dental fear. This fact was not affected neither by social background nor the children's DMF index. The results were comparable with the preceding studies. It seems that unpleasant dental experiences in childhood affect subsequently developed dental fear, and that common fear is positively correlated to the dental fear. In order to find the exact age, when the dental fear first develops, similar studies should be conducted on other age groups. The results of this and similar studies help us form efficient prevention techniques, which enable us to identify the risk groups and help them with available therapeutic treatment.

6. Assessment of mental health services in Slovenia with The European service mapping schedule  
Kurbos M., Šprah L.
First author's affiliation: Sociomedical Institute at SRC SASA, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Mental health is becoming one of the priorities for the European health care policies due to a high lifetime prevalence of mental disorders. Cost-benefit studies on mental health facilities are needed to improve planning and efficacious resource use. The European service mapping schedule (ESMS) is so far the only standardized and internationally applicable instrument for description and classification of mental health services and for measuring the intensity of service use. The aim of our study was to examine availability and utilization of mental health services in the Slovene regions by using the ESMS methodology. Slovenian translation of the ESMS was used for mapping services in Slovene statistical regions. All services meeting inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study. A reference person from every service provided information about service features mostly by telephone. 280 mental health services fulfilled the ESMS. Marked differences between regions were noticed in patterns of service provision and utilization. In contrast with the scarcity of mental health services in the Zasavska region, the Central-Slovenian region offered the most diverse and abundant choice of services of all statistical regions. According to the service characteristics, day and structured activity services rarely offered work or work-related activities but provided other structured activities or social contact. Out-patient and community services were mainly medium intensity non-mobile services. Not all service types described in the ESMS were found in Slovenia. The Central-Slovenian region is comparable in certain aspects of service availability and diversity to the Northern European regions, while the other Slovenian regions are more similar to the Southern European regions. All in all, the ESMS appears to be useful for description and comparison of mental health services within and between several European regions and countries, including Slovenia.

7. Students’ Sense of coherence - A promising concept?  
Maier M., Brunner E.
First author's affiliation: University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria

The Sense of coherence (SoC) is one of the central concepts of Antonovsky’s salutogenesis (Antonovsky, 1997). It can be seen as a global orientation (with the aspects of meaningfulness, comprehensibility and manageability) that determines how confident a person is in the predictability of events, how one evaluates resources to deal with these events and the gain of meeting challenges. To measure the Sense of coherence of academic and administrative staff at universities, Gräser (2003) constructed the U-SoC-scale which is adapted for students in the present study. Our Students’ Sense of coherence scale (S-SoC scale) was handed out, along with sociodemographic items and the short version of the WHO Quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF; Angermeyer, Kilian & Matschinger, 2000), to 191 students at the University of Klagenfurt (82% female). The first aim was to assess the S-SoC’s postulated structural model’s goodness-of-fit. It turned out to be sufficient and indicated some possibilities for the refinement of the instrument. Having confirmed this, we could continue with scores derived from the S-SoC scale and relate the surveyed constructs to each other. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with all five WHOQOL-BREF subdomains as outcomes and gender and the S-SoC’s subscales Manageability and Meaningfulness as independent variables showed significant relations between these constructs. Male respondents feel better globally and physically whereas women claim to have better social relationships. Results from the present study indicate that the students’ Sense of coherence has a considerable impact on people’s subjectively perceived well-being. These findings can be utilized in the manifold programs for health-promotion at universities to make these places a comprehensible, meaningful and manageable environment for students.

8. The impact of individual's self acceptance on unemployment  [presentation, pdf, 509 kB]
Raad Z., Farahani H.
First author's affiliation: Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medicine, Department of Psychology, Tehran, Iran

Self acceptance reflects to an individual’s satisfaction involving self-understanding and awareness of one’s strength and weakness resulting in self help on creation and happiness and self improvement. The aim of this research was characterizing the relation between self acceptance and unemployment among persons with the age ranging from 20 to 30 years. A self acceptance question list using Likert spectrum was designed with 100 questions. Then the content validity and content formality of the self acceptance were obtained and its reliability was calculated with the assumption of Cronbach’s alpha=0.8. The prepared question list was filled by 400 persons with well defined job condition living in north, south, east and west of Tehran in Iran. Our results illustrated that the self acceptance has a direct impact on job condition meaning. To analyze the job opportunities in the society, considering the concept of self acceptance is vital to have a clearer picture.

9. Efficiency in typical 'male' and typical 'female' tasks during menstrual cycle  
Šimić N., Manenica I., Pupić-bakrač A., Peričić M.
First author's affiliation: University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia

Various studies have shown the best efficiency in typical 'female' tasks during late follicular phase (Hassman et al., 2000) or in the midluteal phase (Hampson, 1990), and in typical 'male' tasks during menstrual phase. The top efficiency in the first case corresponded to the highest level of estrogen and progesterone, while in the latter, these levels were at the lowest. The aim of this investigation was to try to associate efficiency in typical male and typical female tasks to hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Twenty female students (18 to 21 years), with regular menstrual cycle of 28 days, took part in this study. As typical female task used was the O' Connor dexterimeter, and male task was a mental rotation task. Subjects performed the tasks during menstrual, late follicular and midluteal phase. Spielberger’s State Anxiety Questionnaire was administered before the tasks in each phase. After completion of the task, the subjects had to assess its difficulty on Borg's scale. The results showed the best performance in both tasks in the midluteal phase, which is characterised by a high level of estrogen and progesterone. The differences between the results in the late follicular and midluteal phase suggest that estrogen level was responsible for differences in the performance. The progesterone level seemed to be responsible for a lower anxiety in the midluteal phase, which may have indirectly improved the efficiency in mental rotation tasks. The anxiety level, together with task difficulty assessments, was the highest in menstrual and the lowest in midluteal phase.

10. The Transtheoretical model of change – Processes of change profiles within psychiatrical population  
Žuljević D., Gavrilov Jerković V.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Philosophy, Novi Sad, Serbia

The processes of change represent hidden or obvious activities and experiences which people use or rely on in attempts to change their problematic behaviour. They were conceptualised as one of two key dimensions of Transtheoretical model of change (Prochaska et al. 1992). Metatheoretical analyses performed by TTM authors showed that over 400 different psychotherapeutical interventions could be summarized to 10 basic processes of change. By these authors patients use them more or less, depending on the fact at which stage of change they are. This research was conducted in attempt to discover if there was a difference in specific use of processes of change related to diagnosis of psychiatrical patients. The aim was to determine whether there was a difference in usage of change processes among patients with different diagnoses and also to determine which processes were dominantly used. The usage was measured by Processes of change questionaire PCQ-2001 (by Gavrilov-Jerković) completed by 221 patients diagnosed as neurosis, psychosis and personality disorder. Cluster analysis showed 6 clusters of patients with similar profile of processes usage. Analysis of variance showed a significant diferrence between them (F=2,78; p=0,019). By crosstabulating dignosis and cluster-membership variables we gained the following results: psychotic patients are mostly members of General low processes usage cluster and cluster defined by Relying on emotions, social support and psychotropic medications. Patients from neurotic spectrum were distributed between 4 clusters. Precontemplation cluster was defined by higher usage of passive processes. Contemplation cluster was defined by higher nondiscriminant usage of all processes. Action cluster was defined by low usage of medication process and high usage of all processes. The Maintenance cluster was defined by high usage of all processes except medication, and the highest usage of active and reorganizing processes. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings will be discussed.

Industrial / Organizational psychology and consumer behavior

[5 abstracts]

1. The relationship between locus of control and the three components of commitment to change among employees in the organization  
Jahanbakhsh Ganjeh S., Omidi Arjenaki N., Nouri A.
First author's affiliation: Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

The impact of locus of control on psychological reactions of employees to change was investigated. Actually the relationship between locus of control and the three components of commitment to a change was studied. A random sample of 80 employees was selected from all employees of a social service organization in Yasuj, Iran. The data were analyzed by using single group MANOVA. The results indicated that locus of control can significantly predict participant's commitment to a specific change. In particular it was shown that the relationship between locus of control and the three components of commitment to change were different. Participants with more internal locus of control were more likely to have high affective and normative commitment to change, whereas participants with more external locus of control were more likely to have high continuance commitment to change.

2. The relationship of personality characteristics and job burnout among nurses  
Omidi Arjenaki N., Jahanbakhsh Ganjeh S., Nouri A.
First author's affiliation: Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

This study aimed at investigating the relationship between personality characteristics and job burnout among nurses. A random sample of 75 nurses was selected from all nurses in the public hospital of Shahrekord. The measures were NEO Personality Characteristics Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The data were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis. The results of this research indicated that personal characteristics can significantly predict the three components of job burnout. The most noteworthy finding is the predictability of nurses' job burnout from the agreeableness trait.

3. The personality antecedents and the organizational consequences of the organizational commitment in client’s companies  
Oreyzi Samani H., Tabesh N.
First author's affiliation: University of Esfahan, Esfahan, Iran

One of the today's most important problems in Iran is the outsourcing services. According to transition from public organizations to private ones, the third party in organizational commitment was born because of the outsourcing and contracting companies. Workers in the contracting companies have two fold commitments, to their own company and to their client's companies. Participants in this study were 500 workers in six contracting companies responsible for outsourcing services toward client companies. Personality antecedents of commitment were: locus of control, measured by Internal-External scale (Rotter, Mulry, 1965), five dimensions of personality, namely contentiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism and openness, measured by Revised Neo personality Inventory (Neo-PI, 1992), and adult attachment (Hazan, Shaver, 1991). The organizational variables in client organizations were organizational climate (Becker, 1992) and organizational support measured by perceived organizational support scale (Eisenberger, Huntington and Sowa, 1986). Mediational analyses show that organizational commitment (Belfor, Wexler, 1996) mediates personal characteristics and organizational characteristics.

4. The relationship between personality and the need for leadership of Iranian workers  
Salahian A., Oreizi H., Tabesh N.
First author's affiliation: Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

Need for leadership (NL) differs from other concepts in the leadership domain because it is not an asset of a leader but of subordinate in his situation, job, or organization. NL is the extent to which an employee wishes the leader to facilitate the path toward individual, group, or organizational goals. A subjective need for leadership (SNL) is associated with individual goals, while the objective one is associated with group or organizational goals. The aim of the current research is to investigate relationship between personality of workers and their need for leadership. The participants were 650 workers chosen from a large Iranian factory producing automobiles. Three measures were used: first, The Revised Hazan and Shaver (1994) that contains three categories (immune style, anxiety style and ambivalence style), second, Revised Inventory (NEO-PI) Costa and McCrae(1992), and third, The scale of need for (subjective and objective) leadership (De Vries, 1997). Findings indicate that contentiousness, immune attachment style and extraversion predict objective need for leadership, while openness, anxiety attachment style, and neuroticism (reversely) predict subjective need for leadership. Implications of these studies were discussed for practical use in the organizations.

5. The relationship between motivation to manage and competencies of the top executive level managers in traditional and bureaucratic organizations in Iran  
Tabesh N., Oreyzi H.
First author's affiliation: University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

In the traditional organizations managers are selected according to power relations while in the bureaucratic ones executive managers are assigned by succession planning and career development. Most organizations in Iran are traditional ones. The aim of the current research is to investigate the relationship between the motivation to manage and competencies of top executive managers in these two different organizations. The construct of motivation to manage, reflex striving for power and domination associated with favourable attitudes toward father's figures, a tendency to assert oneself and interested in administrative works were measured by Miner's Sentence Completion Scale (MSCS), (Miner, 1964). Competencies were measured via role playing, in-basket and business game as part of the assessment center method. After applying, coefficient of manager's total scores were computed and correlated with their scores on MSCS. From 85 executive managers, 45 were bureaucratic and 40 were traditional ones. The findings indicate that only in the bureaucratic organizations there is positive significant relation between competency and motivation. Findings emphasize on the career development path and succession planning. The current research also shows that the psychological variable of managers depends on organizational structure.