Personality and individual differences

[34 abstracts]

1. Women closed in body: The body image and self-esteem of young women went through cosmetic surgery  
Alfoldi L., Lábadi B.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institut of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

This study investigates the psychology of cosmetic surgery among young women. Previous studies have allocated symptoms of body dismorphic disorder by the significant fraction of those women, who submitted or went through a plastic surgery. The aim of this research was to find out the change and pathology development of the body image and self-esteem by patients went through cosmetic surgery. We compared cosmetic surgery patients (N= 20, mean age=28,8) and a control group (university women N= 28, mean age =24,86) on different questionnaires (Tenessee Self Concept Scale, EDI: perfectionism subscle, Self-Report Mirror Gazing Questionnaire, Self Esteem- Scale, Body- and Self Image Questionnaire). The results showed that there are remarkable differences between the two groups in judgments of their body and themselves, in anxiety, in satisfaction with appearance, and in the reaction of the aesthetic stimulus and expectations of their social environment. The results are discussed due to personality traits and cognitive theory.

2. Personal goals and trait emotional intelligence as predictors of domains of life-satisfaction  
Avsec A., Bajec B., Takšić V.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Many studies confirmed the importance of trait emotional intelligence for subjective well-being but specific domains of life-satisfaction was rarely of interest. One can assume the greater importance of emotional intelligence for domains, related to interpersonal or communion-related domains, such as satisfaction with friends, intimate partners… than to agentic domains (e.g. work, competence), where emotional intelligence should be of less importance. Beside emotional intelligence, the content of personal goals as predictors of domain satisfaction was of interest. On the basis of value orientation studies, we predicted that higher communion-oriented personal goals should be related to higher satisfaction in communion oriented domains and higher agency-oriented personal goals to higher satisfaction in agency related domains. We also examined possible moderator effects of emotional intelligence in personal goals and domain satisfaction relationship. 230 participants aged from 18 to 60 years took part in our Internet study. They completed Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ), Personal goals questionnaire (PGQ), and the list of domains of life satisfaction. Results confirmed the importance of emotional intelligence and personal goals for most of the life domains Emotional intelligence and personal goals explained independent parts of variance of domain satisfaction. Motivational aspect of personality, often neglected in well-being research, seems to add an important variance to domains of life-satisfaction beside of emotional intelligence.

3. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment – Revised (IPPA-R)  
Babity M., Bíró V., Nagy L.
First author's affiliation: PTE-BTK, Pécs, Hungary

Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) developed by Armsden and Greenberg (1987) is a self – report measure of attachment for children and adolescents. In line with Bowlby’s attachment theory, the IPPA measures psychological security derived from relationships with significant others, e.g. mother, father, (trust, communication, alienation). The aim of the present study was to generalize the results of Armsden and Greenberg’s (1987) three – dimension model of adolescents’ attachment to their parents in a group of Hungarian adolescents. Two samples of adolescent students who ranged in age from 10 to 15 and 16 to 18 years were investigated. Among the participants there were children living in families and foster cared. In our survey good internal consistency were found for the IPPA with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging between 0.717 and 0.898 for the sub-scales across both the parent and peer subscales. Good test-retest reliability was found in both samples of adolescents over a three-week period. There were differences between children living in residential care or living in families on the three subscales. The rate of trust in their mother was lower among boys living in residential care compared to boys living in their own family. The rate of trust in their father was lower among girls living in residential care and the highest rate of trust was found among the younger adolescents. Communication with mother is significantly lower among children living in residential care (both girls and boys), and the highest rate of communication was found in older adolescents girls. We got significant differences in alienation – the rate was higher among girls living in residential care.

4. The effect of facial attractiveness on the judgment about altruism and "free riding"  
Béla B., Tamás B.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institut of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

In the present study, we were curious how the attractiveness of faces is related to the judgments about cooperativeness. In the light of previous studies we expected that the participants attribute less selfishness and more altruism to an attractive face and on the other hand, they regard less attractive faces as more selfish and less altruistic. Photographs of male and female faces were presented to the participants. These pictures were differentiated by their attractiveness: "very attractive", "attractive" and "non-attractive". In one set of experimental groups a self-report was associated with each picture that contained the person's opinion how she/he would behave in a specific, teamwork situation. Some of them were depicted as altruistic, others as exploitative person. Three kinds of pictures were shown to participants (altruistic, exploitative, and picture without self-report). The participants were also asked to fill out a checklist about the persons' perceived negative and positive features. A few days later, the participants completed a recognition task. The pictures were presented pair-wise on a computer screen and the participants were asked to choose those photos they had seen in the first experimental phase. Reaction time was also measured. Our findings indicate that female participants are sensitive to the attractiveness of male faces but not to female faces. They recognized the "very attractive" and "attractive" male pictures faster than non-attractive ones, regardless of whether these pictures were associated with self-report or not. Male participants did not show significant differences in reaction time. However, when only the "non-attractive" faces were considered, both male and female participants reached significantly shorter reaction times if the presented pictures were characterized as an altruistic rather than a selfish person.

5. Attachment style, coping strategies and behavioral problems among adolescents in residential care  
Biro V., Babity M., Nagy L.
First author's affiliation: University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary

From the beginning of life, love is as important for the emotional developing like food for physical development. For a baby it is important to be sure that it can rely on her nurse in any case. Those children who miss his/her mother’s love are unable to develop normal emotional relationship with other people (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). According to surveys (Shechory & Sommerfeld, 2007) children who get into residential care after the age of 7 have a higher level of depression, anxiety, and they have more social problems compared to children who are taken into care system earlier. It is well known that the time they spend in residential care is related to the level and the types of their behavioural problems. Two samples of adolescent students who ranged in age from 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years were investigated. Among the participants there were children living in families and foster care. The attachment was measured with IPPA-R. In our survey, good internal consistency was found for the IPPA with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for all sub-scales. The behavioural problems were registered with the CBCL self-report questionnaire. Our results show that adolescents living in residential care exhibit higher levels of depression and anxiety. The coping strategies were measured with the CISS-48. When adolescents use coping strategies, those living in residential care (both boys and girls) prefer emotional strategies. Avoiding strategies are used mainly by boys living in residential care, and problem-focused coping is characteristic for children (both boys and girls) living in families.

6. Comparing factors of Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) with the Szondi-test in a sample of criminal offenders  [presentation, ppt, 661 kB]
Biro V., Gyöngyösiné Kiss E.
First author's affiliation: University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary

Characteristics of criminal personality have been studied by several theorists in the history of psychology from Gall’s phrenology till the latest psychopathological approaches. Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, 1994) is designed to assess differences between people in seven basic dimensions of temperament and character. The four temperament dimensions are Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence and the three character dimensions are Self-Directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-Transcendence. The inventory has been developed to account for individual differences in normal and abnormal (deviant) behavior patterns as well. In our empirical research we examine 100 criminal offenders. The subjects filled out the TCI, and the Szondi Test was also taken with them (eight times). We compared the scores of the TCI factors with the factors of the Szondi Test. Our hypotheses are based on Dr. Phil. Enikő Gyöngyösiné Kiss’ examination (on a non-criminal, healthy sample), which obtained, that in the cases of Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Cooperativeness factors in the TCI there is a positive correlations with the suitable Szondi Test signs.

7. Coping strategies of children with learning disability in situation of frustration  
Bolla V.
Apáczai Csere János Faculty of the University of West Hungary, Major of Education for children with special needs, Győr, Hungary

Owing to the variances turning up at the early stage of psychological development in case of children with learning disabilities specific abilities are not functioning reliably; therefore these children are blocked in reaching acceptable learning performance expected by level of their intelligence and age. Disorders in abilities are not manifested as changes of performance alone but concern the whole personality and influence its development. The aim of this research was to compare the reactions of two groups of children in everyday life situations of frustration: children with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities (control group). Sixty 9–14 year-old children, supposed to be a representative group by age and intelligence performance, took Picture Frustration Test (Rosenzweig, 1950). The results revealed that, in a frustrating situation, children with learning disabilities show direct aggression toward the surroundings, whereas members of the control group reply with aggression toward themselves or avoid aggression and talk over bagatelle. Due to the significant differences, I intend to disclose coping strategies and personality factors protecting against stress in children with learning disabilities.

8. Who will win the competition? The relationship between personality, strategy and success in a competitive situation  
Czibor A., Bereczkei T.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institute of Psychology, Pécs, Hungary

Identifying the personality factors which can influence individual’s decisions in a competitive situation is a crucial dilemma on different fields of psychology. From the evolutional perspective, the goods gained in the competition can increase the individual’s prospect for surviving and mating, resulting in a higher genetic representation in the next generations. Our aim was to investigate, how personality traits, conflict solving methods, and Machiavellianism influence the benefits earned and strategies applied to a competitive game that was played for real money. In the experimental settings university students played the public goods game transformed to a competitive situation. Winners were expected to behave on a self-interest manner, so they do not significantly contribute to the collective property. In order to obtain information about the subjects’ personality and character profiles and their typical conflict solving strategies we used Temperament and Character Inventory by Cloninger, the Thomas-Killman Conflict Mode Inventory, and additionally the Mach IV. Test. The scores of competitive conflict-solving strategy showed significant negative correlation with the amount of individual contributions in the first round of the game, whereas the high Avoidance scores were positively associated with a higher contribution in the middle of the game. The amount of benefit individuals gained showed differences between the two sexes, and negatively correlated with the Reward Dependence. High-Mach persons were likely to gain higher benefit than low-Machs, although the difference did not reach the level of significance. In the light of the participants’ answers to the experimenter’s questions at the end of the game, participants could be classified into individually-oriented and group-oriented players. These attitudes had a remarkable effect on the participants’ decisions on the game strategy, and the amount of benefit they gained.

9. Relations between mate selection and the Big Five model of personality  [presentation, pdf, 2273 kB]
Dinic B., Rakic B.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Belgrade, Serbia

The aim of this research was to examine relationships between heterosexual mate selection criteria and personality dimensions. Participants (274) were balanced by gender, aged 18-59. Mate selection criteria were measured using the KIP110 questionnaire (Dinic, 2005) which is operationalized through six criteria: competency, emotional investment and connivance, excitement, social status and similar origin, specific interest and similar interest (intellect). Personality dimensions were measured using the BFI (John, Donahue, Kentle, 1991). Results have shown that competency and emotional investment and connivance, as main criteria for mate selection, positively correlate with all personality dimensions except Neuroticism. Excitement has shown positive correlations with Extraversion, Agreeableness and Openness, and negative with Neuroticism. Further, social status and similar origin have shown positive correlations with Conscientiousness and negative with Openness, and similar interest have shown positive correlations only with Openness. Specific interest did not show significant correlations with Big Five dimensions, probably because of weak psychometric characteristic. This study provides empirical evidence that personality play important role in the mating process and suggest mating based on similarity.

10. Well-being and internalized homophobia in a sample of lesbians and gays in the Region Friuli Venzia Giulia  
Flebus G. B., Bottino M.
First author's affiliation: Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy

The Multifactor Internalized Homophobia Inventory (MIHI, Flebus & Montano, 2003) was used to measure internalized homophobia in a large sample of gays and lesbians living in the Friuli Venezia Giulia. The MIHI is made up of six scales which tap different aspects of internalized homophobia: (1) fear of coming out; (2) regret for sexual orientation; (3) counter-prejudicial attitude; (4) homosexual marriage; (5) homosexual parenthood; (6) stereotype of gays/lesbians. The anonymous questionnaire, distributed in either paper and electronic format, comprised also a short scale derived by Ryff's model of well-being, the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale and a new scale, aimed to measure the impact of sexual orientation on life events. Other biographical data (such as age, gender, sexual orientation, family status, education) were used to better analyse and understand the answers. The connections of well-being, self esteem and internalized homophobia are presented in the results.

11. The effects of personality traits and suppression of positive emotion on physiological changes  [presentation, ppt, 445 kB]
Gračanin A., Kardum I., Hudek - Knežević J.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Arts and Sciences Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia

The effects of emotional suppression and personality traits on the changes in the physiological activation in the situation of positive affect compared to emotionally neutral situation were examined. Participants (N = 119) viewed film clips of neutral and emotional content. They were divided in two groups, the one that received instructions to suppress experienced emotions and the one with instructions to act normally. During the experiment, skin conductance level (SCL), peripheral pulse amplitude (PPA), and heart rate (HR) were measured. Data about personality traits were collected with NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1991), which measures Five factor personality dimensions as well as their facets, six within each dimension. No effects of suppressing on the differences in physiological activation between neutral clip and the one aimed to induce positive emotion were found. Main effects of the Five factor dimensions and their facets on physiological changes were found, as well as the interactions between them and group (suppression/normal behaviour). The effects of neuroticism and facets of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness on the changes in SCL were found. Also, the effects of neuroticism and extraversion facets on the changes in the PPA as well as the effects of the facets of agreeableness on the changes in HR were found. Most importantly, interactions between neuroticism, conscientiousness, facets of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness and group (suppression/normal behaviour) on the changes in SCL and PPA were found, which suggest that suppression of positive emotion has different effects on physiological activity, depending on the personality traits. The results obtained were discussed having in mind the role of personality traits in emotional experience and expression.

12. Personality and coping in patients with chronic diseases  
Kerekes Z., Tiringer I., Netling I., Toth M., Bors P., Palfi I.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Pécs, Hungary

Patients with chronic diseases may suffer from variety of problems (effects of the disease itself, the therapy, psychosocial consequences). The proposal of this investigation is to find out whether there are any personality factors which can play important part in coping with cancer, cardiac diseases (myocardial infarct) psoriasis and IBD (includes M. Crohn and colitis ulcerosa). During the investigation we used the standardized, self-report versions of TCI, BDI and FKV-LIS questionnaires. 38 people were diagnosed with psoriasis, 42 with cancer, 50 with myocardial infarct, 26 patients with IBD. We also have data from 39 healthy control persons corrected by age and sex according to the patient groups. We found that depressive coping strategy, active and problem-focused coping were significantly higher in psoriasis group, than in the control. Active, problem-focused coping was the most significant coping style in all patients groups, most of all in the cancer patients group. We can determine that in the IBD as well in psoriasis and cancer group the Harm Avoidance TCI factor had a higher value than in the control group and the Self-directedness and Cooperativeness factors were lower. In the psoriasis group the Novelty Seeking is lower than in IBD and in control group, but the Cooperativeness was similar to the IBD group. Cancer patients have the highest Self-transcendence. Besides the personality differences, the patient’s depression rate is also an important factor for coping with the illnesses. The BDI results show a higher level of depression rate in IBD and psoriasis group. Obviously further investigation on higher patient number and longitudinal design is necessary to map the differences more adequately in the future.

13. Self-concept and competition: Toward a structural model of factors of motivation  [presentation, ppt, 183 kB]
Kobal Grum D.
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Among various studies on cross-cultural aspects of self-concept there is a huge lack on relation of self-concept with competition. In our study, we try to reject a stereotype, that competition is not a desired personal characteristic. Therefore, the principal hypothesis is, that if competition is investigated in a context of self-concept, also positive correlations with self-concept areas could appear. As a consequence, a new model of self-concept, based on different kinds of competition, could be postulated. It could also be assumed that this model might differ from culture to culture. Therefore, the participants from three countries participated in the study. Countries were chosen on the basis of political and cultural indicators in Eastern/Southern versus Western/Southern European changes: Slovenia, Serbia and Monte Negro and Spain. The investigation of the correlations between self-concept and competition within each national cultural group is underlined. The study comprised of 128 Slovene, 99 Serbian and Monte Negro and 140 Spanish participants. We found that culture has a significant impact on self-concept and competition.

14. Preference for self-resembling faces in human mate choice and interpersonal relations  [presentation, ppt, 2014 kB]
Kocsor F., Juhász S., Rezneki R., Bereczkei T.
First author's affiliation: University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary

Empirical studies proved that human mate choice tends to be homogamous for various traits. However, results of the experiments on facial resemblance are contradictory. Bereczkei (2004) showed a high degree of similarity between spouses, while deBruine (2004) found negative correlation between self-resemblance and attractiveness of opposite sex images. To obtain additional data about the preference for self-resemblance, we took photos of volunteers' faces, which were morphed into male and female composite faces. The volunteers had to choose between self-resembling and non-resembling faces, and images which were more attractive then the self-resembling faces. Women did not show any preference for similarity, they preferred the most attractive male and female faces. In contrast, men preferred the self-resembling images of women to non-resembling images. In a situation, when men had to choose between the three types of opposite sex images at the same time, they preferred the most attractive to self-resembling and the latter to non-resembling faces, as predicted. The self-resemblance of same-sex faces was not preferred by men nor by women. Presumably in a real mate-choice situation both similarity and attractiveness play an important role. The difference in the preference for the same and opposite sex self-resembling faces supports the theory that instead of mere perceptional biases, higher level, adaptive, evolved neuronal processes of decision-making contribute to the mechanism of choosing between faces.

15. Tolerance, depression and sense of humor  
Kolesarić V., Krizmanić M.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia

Depressed people are for the most part concentrated on themselves and their troubles. People with a well developed sense of humor do not put themselves in the center of the universe. Tolerant people do take into account other people and their rights and needs, so the aim of the research was to established possible relations between these variables. Students at the University of Zagreb have given answers to scales of tolerance towards family members and peers, a depression questionnaire and two tests for sense of humor. The obtained results show some interesting relations between the examined variables.

16. Correlation between mother's and daughter's body image regarding the quality of their relationship  
Koračin N., Pirnar Z., Vidmar L.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

In our research we were interested whether mother's body image is related to the daugter's one. Previous researches indicate that mother influence on daughter's body image through process of identification, quality of relationship and daughter's imitation of mother behaviour. Mothers more often criticize daughter's physical look, weight and give them advice about diets. Additionaly, we focused on the question, whether the quality of mother-daughter attachment is related to the magnitude of the relationship between mother's and daughter's body images. 52 mothers and their daughters filled out three measures of body image (BES, SDQIII, CSW) and the measure of attachment quality ECR-R. The results confirmed our expectations about the positive relations between weight and figure on BES and CSW. Our further assumption that the relation between mother's and daughter's body image with the secure attachment styles would be higher than that of the non-secure attachment styles was not confirmed. The possible cause of it could be our categorization of the secure and non-secure attachment styles.

17. The comparison of measuring attachment with a questionnaire and the measurement range of the Szondi test  
Kormos K., Török I., Nagygyörgy K., Lacsán K., Korchmáros Z., Kőváry Z.
First author's affiliation: University of Szeged, Department of Psychology, Szeged, Hungary

Several examinations prove that the dysfunctions of the attachment influence the psychiatric vulnerability and may cause different psychiatric dysfunctions. In our study, we used the Hungarian version of two current questionnaire methods (ECR-R, AAS) and the vectors of the Szondi test measuring attachment on the sample of the normal population of 80 people (aged 20–26). During the examination, we used the two-profile method of Szondi-Mérei; one was recorded before filling in the questionnaires and one after it. Thus, for the second time, the effect of the attachment-experience also appeared by the attachment questionnaires. We compared the attachment styles given by the questionnaire with the inherent constellation of vectors Szondi ‘C’ and ‘S’. Some constellations of factor Szondi ‘C’ were related significantly more often to secure, avoiding, and anxious attachment styles. In case of secure attachment style, we received significantly more often the Szondi ‘C’ factor 0+, -+ and -0 constellations. In case of avoiding and anxious attachment, the ++ constellation also appeared whereas the -+ constellation was typical of avoiding and secure attachment styles. We had to pay attention to the intimate signs of factor ‘h’. We conclude that the 0+ constellation is the sign of the secure attachment. The ++ sign can be interpreted in a way that attachment is not sufficient, anxious searching may emerge. That is why the anxious attachment or avoiding attachment can appear as a form of reaction. According to the study, the Szondi test does not categorize so accurately, but the behaviour and motivations can be understood more clearly.

18. Creativity and the elaboration of aggression  
Kőváry Z., Török I., Látos M.
First author's affiliation: Institution of Psychology, University of Science of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

A number of psychoanalysts and psychologists came to the conclusion that creativity and aggression are affecting each other: aggression feeds man's pursuit to cope with inner and external obstacles successfully, and creative process – by Freud's original theory on sublimation – helps us to express our aggression in a socially acceptable form. Arts also have a special psychological function in regulating affective states of the Self. We therefore assumed that there will be a negative correlation between creativity and anger acting out. To verify our hypothesis, we used Torrance's (1960) test to measure creativity (originality) and Spielberger’s Anger In-Anger Out Scale (Perczel, Kiss, Ajtay, 2007) to study the style of coping with anger. To examine if there is a connection between low level creativity and authoritarianism, we also used the Hungarian adaptation of F-scale (Fábián, 1998). We studied 18-year-old Hungarian students: art high-school students (N = 75) and control regular high-school students (N = 75). The whole sample scored 19.6 on the Anger Out scale, which is higher than the Hungarian standard value. Students with above-mean Non Verbal Originality (NVO) on Torrance test had lower Anger Out values than the group with below-mean NVO. Students in art high-school scored higher on F-scale than regular high-school students. These findings confirm that people with lower NVO (less creativity) tend to act their anger out more then people with higher NVO. It seems that creative persons show less hostility, because they have the way to elaborate their negative emotions.

19. Friendship and parental treatment: How early childraising habits effect adult friendship features  
Lassú Z. F.
Eötvös Lóránd University, Faculty of Elementary and Nursery School Teacher Training, Budapest, Hungary

This paper investigated the effect that perceived parental treatment had on adult friendships. College students (N=345, 161 men and 184 women) were asked about their relationships with their best friends and their memories of how their parents treated or mistreated them during their childhood. The relationship between the two was derived from factor and cluster analysis. Gender differences were also part of the focus. Memories of a mothers' treatment are found to be more influential on adult friendships for both sexes than the fathers' treatment for both sexes, especially for women. Results showed that mistreatment by the adults' mothers and fathers had different effects on the level of intimacy and supportiveness in their friendships.

20. Insecure attachment and emotion dysregulation  [presentation, ppt, 107 kB]
Láng A.
University of Pécs, Institute for Educational Studies, Pécs, Hungary

Rooted in early caregiver-infant relation, people with different attachment styles deal differently with emotional issues. In this study connection between attachment dimensions (i.e. attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety), alexithymia and anxiety was investigated. Correlation between avoidance and alexithymia, and between anxious attachment and anxious symptoms was expected and tested on a sample of university students (n=90) using self-report measures (ECR-S for attachment dimensions; TAS-20 for alexithymia; STAI and self-report of vegetative symptoms for anxiety). Correlational analysis partially confirmed hypotheses. Alexithymic features and anxiety correlated with attachment dimensions in expected way and in accordance with attachment theory.

21. Correlation of aggressiveness with self-image, self-esteem and optimism  [presentation, pdf, 1628 kB]
Marčič R.
Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

The purpose of this research was to examine the correlation of two personal factors with aggressiveness. The first was self-image and its aspect: self-esteem. No significant correlations were presumed between aggressiveness and self-image or between aggressiveness and self-esteem, because previous research gave inconsistent results. More recent research has shown that there may be other aspects of self-esteem that are more relevant for its relation to aggressiveness, i.e. fragility of high self-esteem (Baumeister, Smart, & Boden, 1996; Kernis, 2003; Kernis, Grannemann, & Barclay, 1989). Therefore significant correlations between aggressiveness and fragile high self-esteem were presumed. The second personal factor, which might correlate with aggressiveness, was optimism. Existing data report of negative connection between optimism and aggressiveness, which was also presumed in this research. These presumptions were examined on a sample of more than 50 women, aged 19 to 34, who were college students or had a college degree. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss and Perry, 1992) was used to measure aggressiveness, Adult Sources of Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-image and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure the level of self-esteem. The fragility of self-esteem was measured in three ways: with the measurement of false responses about the level of self-esteem, contingent self-esteem and instability of self-esteem. The Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale - revised and Life Orientation Test - revised were used to measure optimism. The results showed that only hostility, as a form of aggression, was related to self-image and the level of self-esteem. Other forms of aggression were not significantly related to self-image and the level of self-esteem. Fragile high self-esteem was related to summary aggression and some specific forms of aggression, especially hostility. Optimism was correlated with hostility and physical aggression, but not with other forms of aggression.

22. The effects of exposure to thin media images in young females  
Mian E., Gerbino W.
First author's affiliation: University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy

Body dissatisfaction in young females has been shown to be a causal risk factor for dieting, negative body image, and increases in eating disorder symptoms. Research has shown that women’s ideal body images are influenced by exposure to diet messages and thin media images. However, studies that explored this phenomenon compared groups of healthy females exposed vs. non-exposed to thin media images, exclusively by means of questionnaires or silhouettes ratings. Such methods have low test-retest reliability. Our experiment studied the effects of exposure to physique salient (PS) vs. physique non-salient (PNS) media images and the moderating influence of perceived body discrepancies (PBD). We used a digital assessment method called Body Image Revealer (BIR), consisting in a digital simulation technique capable of manipulating a picture of the participant, previously taken by a digital camera, to simulate a thin/fat body. Participants, 53 female students, filled validated questionnaires in order to exclude those with an eating disorder. Body Mass Index (BMI) was measured to exclude women outside normal weight range. Five participants were excluded because of high scores in the aforementioned questionnaires or low/high BMI values. To define a baseline, participants’ perceived bodies (PB) and ideal bodies (IB) were assessed using the BIR. The retest was managed after 5 minutes, consisting of a second BIR session following the presentation of PS vs. PNS media images taken from magazines that girls read, according to a poll subministered all over the nation before the experiment. Higher PB scores were associated with the exposure to PS images. The analysis of IB scores indicated that participants increased their desire for thinner bodies after exposure to PS images. Both effects were positively correlated with age and BMI. Results suggest that PS images portraying thin models elicit negative PBD and a desire for thinness greater than images that are considered physique non-salient. This can be detrimental for women’s body images and could be prodromic for an eating disorder.

23. From Big Five to Big One: Higher-order structural hierarchy of personality  [presentation, ppt, 305 kB]
Musek J.
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Hierarchical structural models comprising the general factor solution have been established in different fields of psychology (e.g. general factor of intelligence). In the personality domain however, the discussion has been between two-, three-, five- or more factor solutions, while the general factor solution has never been taken seriously until a very recent time. In this study, the evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) is presented and a new hierarchical structural model of personality is proposed. Additionally, the psychological nature of the GFP or the Big One is discussed as well as its possible evolutionary, genetic and neurophysiological basis.

24. Increased media exposition of the erotic contents and the psychosexual maturation in prepuberty and puberty  
Nagygyörgy K., Kormos K., Török I., Kőváry Z.
First author's affiliation: University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

From the point of view of the socialisation effects of media contents in the past few years, analyses concerning the erotic representation of muliebrity appeared which suggest that sexual attractiveness is transmitted primarily to young girls as a requirement. The presentation of the fashionable lesbian relationship is not well studied area. According to the media representation, kiss can be a part of the intimacy between women, which otherwise allows more physical intimity. We studied whether these representations form the image of young boys about female sexualism. In our survey 523 students aged 12 and 16 were asked how much bisexual content they could see in different kinds of genres and what cognitive and emotional effects (acceptance and rejection) were caused by these contents. The results showed that the lesbian erotic relationship with passionate kiss was spotted on the main TV programmes in an astonishingly high rate. There was a significant difference between students aged 12 and 16. At the age of 12 years, rejection, loathness and surprise were high in boys, whereas at the age of 16 the same held true for girls only. According to the results media representation causes increased reflexion concerning own sexualism. If the negative emotional effect is too intense, a post-trauma concerning sexual identity might develop, and in a milder case imperfect integration of sexual desires might occur.

25. Psychomotor and intelligence attribution as self esteem maintenance  
Nouri A., Salahian A., Oreizi H.
First author's affiliation: Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

According to literature on social cognition, people usually accept the validity of favorable evaluation to their source and conversely derogate the source of unfavorable evaluations. They express their affirmative affect toward the result of achievement tests when they have done well on it; vice versa they derogate the test's results when they believe they have done poorly. The aim of the current research was to test these claims. Undergraduate students of psychology (N = 149)responded to three psychomotor tests (called Pattern, Precision and Coordinance test, from Flanagan Aptitude Classification Tests or FACT) and General Intelligence tests (from General Aptitude Test Battery). Then, they received counterfactual feedbacks about outcomes of their performance on Intelligence and Psychomotor tests. Then, they responded to a test that investigators pretended to be the judgment and comprehension test from FACT. On this constructed test, equal positive statements were included on applying intelligence and psychomotor tests, as well as negative statements on applying intelligence and psychomotor tests was included. Subjects should report their conclusions about these prepositions. Findings showed that subjects who received negative feedbacks about their performance on general intelligence test disparaged them, while negative feedbacks about performance on psychomotor tests didn't produce negative reactions. Conclusions indicated that self-esteem is more sensitive to intelligence than psychomotor performance, because people attribute intelligence more than psychology performance to their self concept.

26. Factor analysis of social networking services behaviour and some characteristics of SNS users  [presentation, ppt, 1308 kB]
Popov B., Bodroža B.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Philosophy, Novi Sad, Serbia

Internet social networking services (SNS) represent virtual space for communication and development of social relations (like Facebook, MySpace, etc.). To our knowledge few researches focused on such services so far, whereas internet chat services received more scientific attention. The research explores latent structure of behaviour on web-based SNS. In order to operationalize this form of behaviour, the preliminary version of SNB (Social Networking Behaviour, Popov & Bodroza, 2008) scale has been established. The scale consists of 73 items focused on the quality of computer mediated communication, identity and excessive use of these services. The sample includes 105 subjects. The factor analysis with Promax rotation revealed five interpretable factors, which account for 41.4% of variance. The first factor is interpreted as “SNS addiction” and it describes the excessive use of these services and their use as self confidence booster. The second factor is called “SNS socializing” and it describes the use of SNS to enhance social life, transferring the virtual friendships into real life. The third factor is named “SNS profile as social self” and it refers to the expression of own identity through SNS. The next factor refers to the “negative attitude towards SNS communication” and SNS in general. The fifth factor is called the “flirty communication” and it includes the instrumental use of communication in order to gain sexual stimulation. All these factors have weak to moderate correlation, with the exception of the “negative attitude towards SNS communication” where no correlation with other factors has been found. The second part of the research highlights the differences in behaviour of users of various SNS, predominantly MySpace and Facebook, these two being most commonly used. Furthermore, the differences among users have been analysed from the point of the time consumed by SNS, length of user status and various preferences in SNS communication.

27. The impact of emotional arousal on memory  
Pupić-Bakrač A., Kovač R.
First author's affiliation: University of Zadar, Zadar, Croatia

According to the attention narrowing hypothesis, emotional excitement directs the focus of attention on stimuli which cause emotions and make the focus of attention on other information considerably reduced. As high anxious subjects tend to focus attention on negatively affected stimuli more often than the low, the aim of this study was to determine the difference between low and high anxious subjects in the number of correctly recognized neutral black-and-white drawings and time needed for their recognition, as well as accuracy in retrieving emotionally affected pictures. Fourteen subjects, seven high and seven low anxious, participated in the study. Pictures from the IAPS (International Affective Picture System) basis were taken as an emotionally affected stimulus. Black-and-white drawings of everyday objects were used as neutral material. Neutral black-and-white drawings and emotionally affected stimulus (positive, neutral or negative pictures) were presented simultaneously for 3, 6 or 9 seconds. After five minute period, during which subjects were solving signal detection task, they were asked to recognize neutral black-and-white drawings, as well as retrieve emotionally affected pictures. The accuracy of recognition was recorded for drawings and pictures, and recognition time for drawings. The results showed no difference between high and low anxious subjects in the number of recognized neutral black-and-white drawings presented with all categories of emotionally affected pictures, as well as in recognizing time. There was the lowest number of recognized drawings when they were presented with negatively affected pictures, and that was followed with the longest recognizing time at all intervals of the exposition. The greatest number of recognized black-and-white drawings was when they were presented with positively affected pictures. Low anxious subjects were more successful in retrieving negatively affected pictures than high anxious, while there was no difference between these two groups in retrieving positively and neutrally affected pictures.

28. The relationship of attachment style and emotional intelligence: The moderating role of gender  
Rebernjak B., Buško V., Marjanović I.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Zagreb, Croatia

The association of attachment style and emotional intelligence (EI) with a possible moderating effect of gender was investigated in a sample of 281 Croatian students. Previous studies indicated the existence of connection between parental warmth and emotional intelligence, and between attachment and emotional intelligence, although this relationship was not thoroughly explored. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis indicated weak to moderate relationship between attachment style and two ability measures of EI. Male participants who exhibit negative model of self (anxious and fearful attachment styles) scored lower on EI measures than those exhibiting positive model of self (secure and dismissive attachment styles). Female participants, on the other hand, scored more or less consistently on EI (depending on the measure used) no matter what their attachment style was.

29. Examining the efficiency in tasks of signal detection within subjects with different personality traits  
Škrinjarić L.
University of Zadar, Department of Psychology, Zadar, Croatia

Previous researches showed subject's efficiency decline in performing a monotonous task, like Mackworth's clock, as the function of task duration. It has also been shown that there is a difference in the task performing efficiency regarding the signal detection between introverts and extroverts. This is usually explained by higher level of cortical arousal within introverts for which they show lower decline of efficiency than the extroverts. The aim of this research was to examine the changes of efficiency in detecting signals of different duration with regard to dimensions of extroversion and neuroticism, and to determine possible changes within the parameters of ECG in the function of task duration within subjects with different personality traits. The research was performed on a group of students (N = 20). On the basis of results obtained by Eysenck's personality questionnaire, the subjects were divided into 2 groups, with 10 subjects each (with regard to the dimensions of extraversion). During the research a computer with an adequate software (Mackworths's clock) and an ECG device (PowerLab System) were used. As expected, changes within all parameters regarding subjects' efficiency in the function of task duration were found, except for the proportion of false alarms. Subject's efficiency significantly decreases as a function of task duration. Statistically significant difference between extroverts and introverts was found only for the proportion of false alarms. Although introverts showed a tendency of better efficiency than the extroverts, the differences between groups were not significant on any examined efficiency parameter. Changes in heart frequency and sinus arrhythmia (mean values of R-R intervals and parameters of SD and SDD) showed a general tendency of tranquilizing subjects' organism as a function of task duration, as well as the differences between personality traits. Introverts had a lower mean values and lower variability of R-R intervals (SD and SDD).

30. Relationship among some sexuality dimensions, life satisfaction and sexual experience  
Šunjić M., Škegro I., Barišić M.
First author's affiliation: Faculty of Philoshophy, University of Mostar, Mostar, BIH

Sexual satisfaction and adjustment are important aspects of satisfaction with one's intimate relationship and with life satisfaction generally. Some individuals, however, experience problems and frustrations concerning sexual aspect of their relationship, which are mainly due to individual differences in human sexuality. Snell (1998) developed a questionnaire that deals with three not enough explored dimensions of human sexuality: sexual-esteem, sexual-depression and sexual-preoccupation. It may be argued that sexual-preoccupation is the result of previous learning in the domain of sexuality, while sexual-esteem and sexual-depression reflect previous individual sexual experiences. Following this argument, the aim of this study was to investigate possible relationships amongst these three dimensions, as well as some aspects of sexual experience (having a sexual partner, satisfaction with sexual life, pornography watching), and life satisfaction. The instruments used included a socio-demographic questionnaire, Sexuality Scale (Snell, 2001) and Life Satisfaction Scale (Penezić, 1996). They were administered to the sample of 186 students (95 males and 91 females). According to expectations, the factor structures of the two scales were confirmed. Results indicate that there are differences in three sexuality dimensions regarding gender. Furthermore, the results showed significant correlations between the results on the two scales and the three aspects of sexual experience. There were also significant correlations between the sexuality dimensions and life satisfactions.

31. Constructive validity of Croatian version of Pavlovian Temperament Survey (PTS)  
Tatalovic Vorkapic S., Lučev I., Tadinac M.
First author's affiliation: Teacher Education College, Dept. of Preschool Education, Rijeka, Croatia

The aim of this study was to examine construct validity of Pavlovian temperament survey (PTS) by determining relationship between three Strelau´s dimensions of temperament (strength of excitation, strength of inhibition, mobility) and basic dimensions of personality that were defined by Eysenck and in 5-factor model of personality. It was expected that strength of excitation and mobility will have significant positive correlations with extraversion and negative correlations with neuroticism, while strength of inhibition will show significant negative correlations with neuroticism. First part of study was conducted on a sample of 74 female students with age average of 22. Pavlovian temperament dimensions were assessed with Croatian version of PTS (Lučev, Tadinac-Babić & Tatalović, 2002) and five basic dimensions of personality were measured by Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire, FF-NPQ (Paunonen, Ashton & Johnston, 2001). Second part of study included sample of 54 female students of psychology, with age average of 20, who completed PTS and EPQ R/A which measures dimensions of personality developed by Eysenck (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1994). Reliability coefficients for all three instruments used in this study were satisfactory but not very high. Coefficients of correlation determined in the first study were mostly not in agreement with what could be theoretically expected and empirical results of other authors, probably due to low reliability and unclear factor structure of FF-NPQ. However, results of the second study confirmed expected pattern of correlations: rSE&E=.41, p<.01, rMO&E=.65, p<.01, rSE&N=-.67, p<.01, rMO&N=-.56, p<.01 and rSI&N=-.36, p<.01, and this can be considered an indicator of good construct validity of PTS.

32. The role of humor in human relationships: An evolutionary model  [presentation, ppt, 415 kB]
Tisljar R., Sefcsik T., Bereczkei T.
First author's affiliation: University of Szeged, Department of Psychology, Szeged, Hungary

Many theories explain the functions of humor in the people's everyday lives. In the light of evolutionary psychology, humor has adaptive features, but the questions on the exact selective pressure has remained unanswered. Human relationships, including mate choice, involve several aspects of humor. We regard humor as a signaling tool that, among others, enable people to detect the degree of similarity between the prospective partners or friends. One of the main questions of our study is to what degree couples and friends share the same humor style, and whether this kind of resemblance (or homogamy) leads to a higher level of satisfaction with their relationship.

33. Comparison of high school, undergraduate and graduate students in procrastination  [presentation, ppt, 268 kB]
Uzun Ozer B.
Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

Procrastination is an undesirable and maladaptive behavior common especially in academic domain. Research studies have shown that it is one of the common barriers to academic success since it decreases the quality and quantity of work. There has been intense body of literature on procrastination and its reasons in different age groups. However, direct comparison of different academic grade levels on procrastination prevalence and its reasons has drawn less attention in the literature. Hence, the purpose of the present research was to investigate the levels, prevalence and the reasons of academic procrastination on high school, undergraduate and graduate students. In this respect, Procrastination Assessment Scale-Student (PASS) was administered to a total of 448 students: 149 (83 female; 66 male) were high-school, 150 (80 female; 70 male) undergraduate and 148 (84 female; 64 male) graduate students. The average age was 15.5 years old for high-school, 20.4 years old for undergraduate, and 25.5 years old for graduate students. Results showed a significant difference in procrastination among these three groups. Specifically, undergraduate students (M = 20.1; SD = 3.8) claimed to procrastinate more than graduate (M = 18.5; SD = 4.1) and high school students (M = 17.2; SD = 4.5). 37% of high school students and 56% of undergraduate students claimed to be nearly always or always procrastinator on studying for exams, while graduate students (39%) procrastinate more on writing term papers. High school students engage in procrastination due to the reason of perfectionism, difficulty in making decision, laziness and risk taking; while undergraduates procrastinate due to lack of assertion and aversiveness of tasks. Graduate students procrastinate due to fear of failure, rebellion against control and laziness.

34. Narcissism and empathy among actors and non-actors  
Vervega D., Veselko K., Voljavec A.
First author's affiliation: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

The purpose of our research was to examine the presence of some personality characteristics stereotypically attributed to actors in a group of actors and non-actors. With the use of NPI and IRI questionnaires we measured the degree of narcissism and empathy of 142 participants of average age 26,41 years, who were equally represented by sex and with regard to their possession or lack of acting experiences. Considering the past research done in this field we hypothesized that actors would be more narcissistic than non-actors, but the results did not support this hypothesis. Although some authors report about a higher degree of narcissism of male non-actors and female actors, we found no significant statistical differences in the degree of narcissism either between males and females or between actors and non-actors. Although most researchers came to the conclusion that females are more empathic than males, we found no significant statistical differences between males and females, among either actors or non-actors. According to the total IRI result actors indeed appear to be more empathic than non-actors, but we ascribe this to the fact that on the subscale measuring imaginational empathic ability actors attained results below our expectations.