The effect of level of processing, test instruction, and the type on priming in memory tests  

Pojhan M.
Islamic Azad University of Tonekabon, Tonekabon, Iran

This research had been examining the effects of three factors – level of processing (graphemic-semantic), test instruction (implicit-explicit), and the type of test (word-stem and word-fragment) on priming in memory tests. On the basis of transfer appropriate processing (TAP) model and retrieval intentionality criterion (RIC), and with respect to the characteristics of word stem and word fragment tests, it was predicted that the subjects in the condition of implicit test instruction do differently in word stem and fragment tasks. The subjects were 80 university undergraduates, randomly assigned in eight experimental groups. As expected, each of the three factors had significant effect on priming, specifically in the implicit condition. The tests did not have similar effects: Level of processing affected the word fragment, but not the stem. In addition, on the basis of these findings it can be concluded (i) that word fragment task is not a pure perceptual implicit test and (ii) that word stem is a cued-recall test under explicit test instruction and a perceptual implicit test under implicit test instruction.